Role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular diseases

Marko Novakovic, Amit Rout, Thomas Kingsley, Robert Kirchoff, Amteshwar Singh, Vipin Verma, Ravi Kant, Rahul Chaudhary

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The human gut is colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exist in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Intestinal microbiota-host interactions play a critical role in the regulation of human physiology. Deleterious changes to the composition of gut microbiota, referred to as gut dysbiosis, has been linked to the development and progression of numerous diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Imbalances in host-microbial interaction impair homeostatic mechanisms that regulate health and can activate multiple pathways leading to CVD risk factor progression. Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, dietary patterns, and a sedentary lifestyle, have been shown to induce gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal inflammation and reduced integrity of the gut barrier, which in turn increases circulating levels of bacterial structural components and microbial metabolites, including trimethylamine-N-oxide and short-chain fatty acids, that may facilitate the development of CVD. This article reviews the normal function and composition of the gut microbiome, mechanisms leading to the leaky gut syndrome, its mechanistic link to CVD and potential novel therapeutic approaches aimed towards restoring gut microbiome and CVD prevention. As CVD is the leading cause of deaths globally, investigating the gut microbiota as a locus of intervention presents a novel and clinically relevant avenue for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110-122
Number of pages13
JournalWorld Journal of Cardiology
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 26 2020

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Dysbiosis
  • Gut microbiota
  • Thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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  • Cite this

    Novakovic, M., Rout, A., Kingsley, T., Kirchoff, R., Singh, A., Verma, V., Kant, R., & Chaudhary, R. (2020). Role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular diseases. World Journal of Cardiology, 12(4), 110-122. https://doi.org/10.4330/wjc.v12.i4.110