Pb2+ is thought to enter erythrocytes through anion exchange (AE) and to remain in the cell by binding to thiol groups. To define the role of AE mechanism and thiol groups in Pb2+ toxicity, we studied the effects of drugs and conditions that modify AE and that modify thiol groups on the ability of Pb2+ to stimulate potassium efflux as measured with 86Rb. The most potent stimulation of 86Rb efflux by Pb2+ occurred when conditions were optimal for the AE mechanism - that is, when bicarbonate was included in the buffer or a buffer made with NaI or NaCl rather than NaClO4 or NaNO3 was used. Furthermore, 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, potent inhibitors of the AE mechanism, completely inhibited stimulation of the 86Rb efflux by Pb2+. These conditions or inhibitors did not affect stimulation of the 86Rb efflux by ionomycin plus Ca2+. A role for Ca2+ channels was dismissed because the inorganic Ca2+ channel blockers, Cd2+ or Mn2+, did not prevent stimulation of 86Rb efflux by Pb2+ but did inhibit stimulation by ionomycin plus Ca2+. 86Rb efflux was more sensitive to Pb2+ if erythrocytes were treated for 15 min with thiol-modifying reagents that enter cells, such as iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, or dithiothreitol, than to reduced glutathione, a thiol-modifying reagent that is not permeable to the cell. Thus, in erythrocytes the AE mechanism and internal thiol groups are critical factors that affect the stimulation of a Ca2+-dependent process by Pb2+.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Cellular Physiology|
|State||Published - May 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology