Risks of Adverse Events in Advanced CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

on behalf of the, CRIC Study Investigators, CRIC Study Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background People with advanced chronic kidney disease are at risk for the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but also many other adverse outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and death. Determination of risk factors that explain the variability in prognosis and timing of these adverse outcomes can aid patient counseling and medical decision making. Study Design Prospective research cohort. Setting & Participants 1,798 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the CRIC Study were followed up for a median of 5.5 years. Predictors Age, race, sex, eGFR, proteinuria, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure, history of CVD, and smoking history. Outcomes ESRD, CVD (congestive heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral artery disease), and death. Results Baseline age of the cohort was 60 years, 46% were women, and 46% were African American. Although 52.3% of participants progressed to ESRD during follow-up, the path by which this occurred was variable. For example, predicted 1-year probabilities for a hypothetical 60-year-old white woman with eGFR of 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, urine protein excretion of 1.8 g/d, and no diabetes or CVD (risk characteristics similar to the average participant) were 3.3%, 4.1%, and 0.3%, for first developing CVD, ESRD, and death, respectively. For a 40-year-old African American man with similar characteristics but higher systolic blood pressure, the corresponding 1-year probabilities were 2.4%, 13.2%, and 0.1%. For all participants, the development of ESRD or CVD increased the risk for subsequent mortality, with no differences by patient race or body mass index. Limitations The CRIC population was specifically recruited for kidney disease, and the vast majority had seen a nephrologist. Conclusions The prognosis and timing of adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease vary by patient characteristics. These results may help guide the development of personalized approaches for managing patients with advanced CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-346
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume70
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2017

Keywords

  • CKD progression
  • CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • advanced CKD
  • adverse event
  • cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • disease trajectory
  • end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
  • incident ESRD
  • kidney function decline
  • mortality
  • pre-ESRD death
  • prognosis
  • risk factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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