Risks and benefits of direct oral anticoagulants across the spectrum of GFR among incident and prevalent patients with atrial fibrillation

Jung-Im Shin, Alex Secora, George Caleb Alexander, Lesley A. Inker, Josef Coresh, Alex R. Chang, Morgan Grams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background and objectives All randomized trials of direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation excluded patients with severe kidney disease. The safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants across the range of eGFR in real-world settings is unknown. Our objective is to quantify the risk of bleeding and benefit of ischemic stroke prevention for direct oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation with and without CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We created a propensity score–matched cohort of 3206 patients with atrial fibrillation and direct oral anticoagulant use and 3206 patients with atrial fibrillation using warfarin from October of 2010 to February of 2017 in an electronic health record (Geisinger Health System). The risks of bleeding and ischemic stroke were compared between direct oral anticoagulant and warfarin users using Cox proportional hazards regression, stratified by eGFR (≥60 and,60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Results The mean (SD) age of the 6412 participants was 72 (12) years, 47%werewomen, and average eGFR was 69 (21) ml/min per 1.73 m2. There were 1181 bleeding events and 466 ischemic strokes over 7391 person-years of follow-up. Compared with warfarin use, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval [95% CI]) of bleeding associated with direct oral anticoagulant use were 1.01 (0.88 to 1.17) and 1.23 (1.02 to 1.48) for those with eGFR≥60 and eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively (P-interaction=0.10). There was no difference between direct oral anticoagulant and warfarin users in the risk of ischemic stroke: HRs (95% CI) of 0.94 (0.74 to 1.18) and 1.02 (0.76 to 1.37) for those with eGFR≥60 and eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively (P-interaction=0.70). Similar findings were observed with individual drugs. Conclusions In a large health care system, patients with eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 who took direct oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation had slightly higher risk of bleeding compared with those on warfarin, but similar benefits from prevention of ischemic stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1144-1152
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume13
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 7 2018

Keywords

  • Anticoagulants
  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Brain Ischemia
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Direct Oral Anticoagulants
  • Electronic Health Records
  • Female
  • Follow-up Studies
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Hemorrhage
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Propensity Score
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
  • Risk Assessment
  • Stroke
  • Warfarin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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