Risk scores for predicting early antiretroviral therapy mortality in sub-Saharan Africa to inform who needs intensification of care: a derivation and external validation cohort study

Andrew F. Auld, Katherine Fielding, Tefera Agizew, Alice Maida, Anikie Mathoma, Rosanna Boyd, Anand Date, Sherri L. Pals, George Bicego, Yuliang Liu, Ray W. Shiraishi, Peter Ehrenkranz, Christopher Serumola, Unami Mathebula, Heather Alexander, Salome Charalambous, Courtney Emerson, Goabaone Rankgoane-Pono, Pontsho Pono, Alyssa FinlayJames C. Shepherd, Charles Holmes, Tedd V. Ellerbrock, Alison D. Grant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Clinical scores to determine early (6-month) antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality risk have not been developed for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), home to 70% of people living with HIV. In the absence of validated scores, WHO eligibility criteria (EC) for ART care intensification are CD4 < 200/μL or WHO stage III/IV. Methods: We used Botswana XPRES trial data for adult ART enrollees to develop CD4-independent and CD4-dependent multivariable prognostic models for 6-month mortality. Scores were derived by rescaling coefficients. Scores were developed using the first 50% of XPRES ART enrollees, and their accuracy validated internally and externally using South African TB Fast Track (TBFT) trial data. Predictive accuracy was compared between scores and WHO EC. Results: Among 5553 XPRES enrollees, 2838 were included in the derivation dataset; 68% were female and 83 (3%) died by 6 months. Among 1077 TBFT ART enrollees, 55% were female and 6% died by 6 months. Factors predictive of 6-month mortality in the derivation dataset at p < 0.01 and selected for the CD4-independent score included male gender (2 points), ≥ 1 WHO tuberculosis symptom (2 points), WHO stage III/IV (2 points), severe anemia (hemoglobin < 8 g/dL) (3 points), and temperature > 37.5 °C (2 points). The same variables plus CD4 < 200/μL (1 point) were included in the CD4-dependent score. Among XPRES enrollees, a CD4-independent score of ≥ 4 would provide 86% sensitivity and 66% specificity, whereas WHO EC would provide 83% sensitivity and 58% specificity. If WHO stage alone was used, sensitivity was 48% and specificity 89%. Among TBFT enrollees, the CD4-independent score of ≥ 4 would provide 95% sensitivity and 27% specificity, whereas WHO EC would provide 100% sensitivity but 0% specificity. Accuracy was similar between CD4-independent and CD4-dependent scores. Categorizing CD4-independent scores into low (< 4), moderate (4–6), and high risk (≥ 7) gave 6-month mortality of 1%, 4%, and 17% for XPRES and 1%, 5%, and 30% for TBFT enrollees. Conclusions: Sensitivity of the CD4-independent score was nearly twice that of WHO stage in predicting 6-month mortality and could be used in settings lacking CD4 testing to inform ART care intensification. The CD4-dependent score improved specificity versus WHO EC. Both scores should be considered for scale-up in SSA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number311
JournalBMC medicine
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome
  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Clinical scores
  • HIV
  • Mortality
  • Predictive models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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