Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for immune recovery uveitis (IRU) in eyes of patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Design: Enrollment data from a 19-clinical center cohort study. Participants: Three hundred seventy-four patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis affecting 539 eyes. Methods: Patients with AIDS were enrolled at 19 United States AIDS ophthalmology clinics. Data were collected by interview, review of medical records, ophthalmic examination, and phlebotomy. Main Outcome Measure: Immune recovery uveitis. Results: Thirty-six patients (9.6%) were diagnosed with IRU involving 50 eyes. The CD4+ T-cell count of 31 of these had risen by ≥50 cells per microliter above nadir to a level ≥ 100 cells per microliter (immune recovery), making up 17.6% of the patients known to have immune recovery after diagnosis of CMV retinitis (95% confidence interval, 12.3%-24.1%). No patients with IRU were observed to have active retinitis or detectable CMV DNA in peripheral blood (P<0.001 and P<0.001 with respect to patients without IRU). Other factors associated with IRU were ≥25% retinal area (odds ratio [OR], 2.72; P = 0.014) or posterior pole involvement with CMV retinitis (odds ratio, 0.43; P = 0.039), treatment with intravitreous injection of cidofovir (OR, 10.6 with respect to eyes never exposed to intravitreous or IV cidofovir; P<0.001), and male gender (OR, 0.26; P = 0.012). More eyes with IRU had visual acuity (VA) of 20/50 or worse (38.0% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.077) relative to eyes without IRU, but the proportions with VA of 20/200 or worse were similar (14.0% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.96). Eyes with IRU more commonly had cystoid macular edema (CME) (45.5% vs. 3.7%, P<0.001) and epiretinal membrane (48.9% vs. 13.3%, P<0.001) than eyes without IRU. Conclusions: Among eyes of patients with immune recovery, the prevalence of IRU is substantial. Eyes with IRU have a high risk of additional morbidity over and above that seen with CMV retinitis, with several-fold higher risk of CME and epiretinal membrane. Large CMV lesions and use of intravitreous cidofovir are risk factors for IRU.
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