Risk factors for tuberculosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation in the United States and Canada: Implications for tuberculosis screening

Timothy R. Sterling, Bryan Lau, Jinbing Zhang, Aimee Freeman, Ronald J. Bosch, John T. Brooks, Steven G. Deeks, Audrey French, Stephen Gange, Kelly A. Gebo, M. John Gill, Michael A. Horberg, Lisa P. Jacobson, Gregory D. Kirk, Mari M. Kitahata, Marina B. Klein, Jeffrey N. Martin, Benigno Rodriguez, Michael J. Silverberg, James H. WilligJoseph J. Eron, James J. Goedert, Robert S. Hogg, Amy C. Justice, Rosemary G. McKaig, Sonia Napravnik, Jennifer Thorne, Richard D. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. Screening for tuberculosis prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation is not routinely performed in low-incidence settings. Identifying factors associated with developing tuberculosis after HAART initiation could focus screening efforts. Methods. Sixteen cohorts in the United States and Canada contributed data on persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who initiated HAART December 1995-August 2009. Parametric survival models identified factors associated with tuberculosis occurrence. Results. Of 37 845 persons in the study, 145 were diagnosed with tuberculosis after HAART initiation. Tuberculosis risk was highest in the first 3 months of HAART (20 cases; 215 cases per 100 000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 131-333 per 100 000 person-years). In a multivariate Weibull proportional hazards model, baseline CD4+ lymphocyte count <200, black race, other nonwhite race, Hispanic ethnicity, and history of injection drug use were independently associated with tuberculosis risk. In addition, in a piece-wise Weibullmodel, increased baselineHIV-1 RNA was associated with increased tuberculosis risk in the first 3 months; male sex tended to be associated with increased risk. Conclusions. Screening for active tuberculosis prior to HAART initiation should be targeted to persons with baseline CD4 <200 lymphocytes/mm3 or increased HIV-1 RNA, persons of nonwhite race or Hispanic ethnicity, history of injection drug use, and possibly male sex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)893-901
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume204
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2011

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Sterling, T. R., Lau, B., Zhang, J., Freeman, A., Bosch, R. J., Brooks, J. T., Deeks, S. G., French, A., Gange, S., Gebo, K. A., Gill, M. J., Horberg, M. A., Jacobson, L. P., Kirk, G. D., Kitahata, M. M., Klein, M. B., Martin, J. N., Rodriguez, B., Silverberg, M. J., ... Moore, R. D. (2011). Risk factors for tuberculosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation in the United States and Canada: Implications for tuberculosis screening. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204(6), 893-901. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir421