Background: Clinical and epidemiological differences between acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that presents at the initiation of mechanical ventilation [MV] (ARDS at MV onset) and that which develops during the course of MV (ARDS after MV onset) are not well understood. We conducted an observational study in five Peruvian ICUs to characterize differences between ARDS at MV onset and after MV onset and identify risk factors for the development of ARDS after MV onset. Methods: We consecutively enrolled critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure requiring at least 24 h of mechanical ventilation and followed them prospectively during the first 28 days and compared baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes by ARDS status. Results: We enrolled 1657 participants on MV (mean age 60.0 years, 55% males) of whom 334 (20.2%) had ARDS at MV onset and 180 (10.9%) developed ARDS after MV onset. Average tidal volume at the initiation of MV was 8.7 mL/kg of predicted body weight (PBW) for participants with ARDS at MV onset, 8.6 mL/kg PBW for those who developed ARDS after MV onset, and 8.5 mL/kg PBW for those who never developed ARDS (p = 0.23). Overall, 90-day mortality was 56% and 55% for ARDS after MV onset and ARDS at MV onset, respectively, as compared to 46% among those who never developed ARDS (p < 0.01). Adults with ARDS had a higher body mass index (BMI) than those without ARDS (27.3 vs 26.5 kg/m2, p < 0.01). Higher peak pressure (adjusted interquartile OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.21-1.88), higher mean airway pressure (adjusted interquartile OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.13-1.76), and higher positive end-expiratory pressure (adjusted interquartile OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) at MV onset were associated with a higher odds of developing ARDS after MV onset. Conclusions: In this study of mechanically ventilated patients, 31% of study participants had ARDS at some point during their ICU stay. Optimal lung-protective ventilation was not used in a majority of patients. Patients with ARDS after MV onset had a similar 90-day mortality as those with ARDS at MV onset. Higher airway pressures at MV onset, higher PEEP, and higher BMI were associated with the development of ARDS after MV onset.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
- Critically ill
- Mechanical ventilation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine