Risk factors for nightblindness among women of childbearing age in Cambodia

Richard David Semba, S. de Pee, D. Panagides, O. Poly, Martin Bloem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To characterize risk factors for nightblindness among nonpregnant women of childbearing age, a group recently recognized to be at high risk of vitamin A deficiency in some developing countries. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study included > 15 000 households in National Micronutrient Survey of Cambodia conducted in 2000. Subjects: The prevalence of nightblindness among 13 358 nonpregnant women was 2.0%. A total of 328 nonpregnant women with nightblindness were matched by province with 1009 nonpregnant women without nightblindness. Methods: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as estimates of the relative risk of factors associated with nightblindness. Results: In a final model, materials in the wall of the house (OR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-2.0), land ownership ≤0.5 hectares (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9), nightblindness in last pregnancy (OR 44.5, 95% CI 29.2-67.8), parity > 3 (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1), diarrhea within the last 2 weeks (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8), maternal body mass index <18.5 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), and lack of consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods in the last 24 h (1-60 retinol equivalents (RE) OR 1.1 , 95% CI 0.7-1.6; ≥60 RE, OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.0) were associated with nightblindness among nonpregnant women. Conclusions: Women of childbearing age in Cambodia with low socioeconomic status, low consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods, a history of nightblindness during the previous pregnancy, parity > 3, malnutrition, and diarrhea have a higher risk of nightblindness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1627-1632
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume57
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2003

Fingerprint

Cambodia
odds ratio
risk factors
Odds Ratio
confidence interval
Confidence Intervals
Diarrhea
diarrhea
Logistic Models
land ownership
Vitamin A Deficiency
vitamin A deficiency
Ownership
Micronutrients
relative risk
parity (reproduction)
Parity
case-control studies
Malnutrition
malnutrition

Keywords

  • Cambodia
  • Diarrhea
  • Epidemiology
  • Nightblindness
  • Poverty
  • Vitamin A
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Risk factors for nightblindness among women of childbearing age in Cambodia. / Semba, Richard David; de Pee, S.; Panagides, D.; Poly, O.; Bloem, Martin.

In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 57, No. 12, 12.2003, p. 1627-1632.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Risk factors for nightblindness among women of childbearing age in Cambodia",
abstract = "Objective: To characterize risk factors for nightblindness among nonpregnant women of childbearing age, a group recently recognized to be at high risk of vitamin A deficiency in some developing countries. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study included > 15 000 households in National Micronutrient Survey of Cambodia conducted in 2000. Subjects: The prevalence of nightblindness among 13 358 nonpregnant women was 2.0{\%}. A total of 328 nonpregnant women with nightblindness were matched by province with 1009 nonpregnant women without nightblindness. Methods: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as estimates of the relative risk of factors associated with nightblindness. Results: In a final model, materials in the wall of the house (OR 1.4, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 0.9-2.0), land ownership ≤0.5 hectares (OR 1.4, 95{\%} CI 1.0-1.9), nightblindness in last pregnancy (OR 44.5, 95{\%} CI 29.2-67.8), parity > 3 (OR 1.5, 95{\%} CI 1.0-2.1), diarrhea within the last 2 weeks (OR 1.9, 95{\%} CI 1.3-2.8), maternal body mass index <18.5 (OR 1.8, 95{\%} CI 1.2-2.7), and lack of consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods in the last 24 h (1-60 retinol equivalents (RE) OR 1.1 , 95{\%} CI 0.7-1.6; ≥60 RE, OR 0.7, 95{\%} CI 0.4-1.0) were associated with nightblindness among nonpregnant women. Conclusions: Women of childbearing age in Cambodia with low socioeconomic status, low consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods, a history of nightblindness during the previous pregnancy, parity > 3, malnutrition, and diarrhea have a higher risk of nightblindness.",
keywords = "Cambodia, Diarrhea, Epidemiology, Nightblindness, Poverty, Vitamin A, Women",
author = "Semba, {Richard David} and {de Pee}, S. and D. Panagides and O. Poly and Martin Bloem",
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AU - Semba, Richard David

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AU - Panagides, D.

AU - Poly, O.

AU - Bloem, Martin

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N2 - Objective: To characterize risk factors for nightblindness among nonpregnant women of childbearing age, a group recently recognized to be at high risk of vitamin A deficiency in some developing countries. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study included > 15 000 households in National Micronutrient Survey of Cambodia conducted in 2000. Subjects: The prevalence of nightblindness among 13 358 nonpregnant women was 2.0%. A total of 328 nonpregnant women with nightblindness were matched by province with 1009 nonpregnant women without nightblindness. Methods: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as estimates of the relative risk of factors associated with nightblindness. Results: In a final model, materials in the wall of the house (OR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-2.0), land ownership ≤0.5 hectares (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9), nightblindness in last pregnancy (OR 44.5, 95% CI 29.2-67.8), parity > 3 (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1), diarrhea within the last 2 weeks (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8), maternal body mass index <18.5 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), and lack of consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods in the last 24 h (1-60 retinol equivalents (RE) OR 1.1 , 95% CI 0.7-1.6; ≥60 RE, OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.0) were associated with nightblindness among nonpregnant women. Conclusions: Women of childbearing age in Cambodia with low socioeconomic status, low consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods, a history of nightblindness during the previous pregnancy, parity > 3, malnutrition, and diarrhea have a higher risk of nightblindness.

AB - Objective: To characterize risk factors for nightblindness among nonpregnant women of childbearing age, a group recently recognized to be at high risk of vitamin A deficiency in some developing countries. Design: Case-control study. Setting: The study included > 15 000 households in National Micronutrient Survey of Cambodia conducted in 2000. Subjects: The prevalence of nightblindness among 13 358 nonpregnant women was 2.0%. A total of 328 nonpregnant women with nightblindness were matched by province with 1009 nonpregnant women without nightblindness. Methods: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as estimates of the relative risk of factors associated with nightblindness. Results: In a final model, materials in the wall of the house (OR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-2.0), land ownership ≤0.5 hectares (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9), nightblindness in last pregnancy (OR 44.5, 95% CI 29.2-67.8), parity > 3 (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1), diarrhea within the last 2 weeks (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8), maternal body mass index <18.5 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), and lack of consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods in the last 24 h (1-60 retinol equivalents (RE) OR 1.1 , 95% CI 0.7-1.6; ≥60 RE, OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.0) were associated with nightblindness among nonpregnant women. Conclusions: Women of childbearing age in Cambodia with low socioeconomic status, low consumption of vitamin A-rich animal foods, a history of nightblindness during the previous pregnancy, parity > 3, malnutrition, and diarrhea have a higher risk of nightblindness.

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KW - Epidemiology

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KW - Poverty

KW - Vitamin A

KW - Women

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