Risk factors for mortality in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

Douglas A. Jabs, Janet T. Holbrook, Mark L. Van Natta, Rebecca Clark, Mark A. Jacobson, John H. Kempen, Robert L. Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate risk factors for mortality among patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), particularly the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Design: Prospective cohort study of patients with AIDS, conducted from 1998 through 2003. Participants: One thousand five hundred eighty-three patients with AIDS, of whom 374 had CMV retinitis. Methods: Patients were contacted every 3 months, with examinations at least every 6 months, in which standardized data were collected on AIDS history and treatment, eye examinations, and hematologic, virologic, and immunologic laboratory data. Main Outcome Measure: Mortality. Results: The overall mortality rate was 0.07 deaths/person-year. In a multivariate analysis, the following baseline risk factors were associated with an increased mortality: higher human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (relative risk [RR] = 4.6 for HIV viral load >100 000 copies/ml vs. <400 copies/ml; P<0.0001), lower CD4+ T-cell count at enrollment (RR = 3.8 for CD4+ T cell count 0-49 cells/μl vs. ≥200 cells/μl; P<0.0001), CMV viral load ≥400 copies/ml (RR = 1.9; P = 0.002), lower hemoglobin (RR = 1.7 for hemoglobin <10 g/dl; P = 0.009), a history of cryptococcal meningitis (RR = 1.7; P = 0.02), CMV retinitis (RR = 1.6; P = 0.0002), and Karnofsky score ≤80 (RR = 1.4; P = 0.008). Conclusions: In the era of HAART, CMV disease as manifested by CMV retinitis and a detectable CMV viral load were associated with an increased risk for mortality, even after adjusting for demographic, treatment, immunologic, and HIV virologic factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)771-779
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmology
Volume112
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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