Risk factors for loss to follow-up prior to ART initiation among patients enrolling in HIV care with CD4+ cell count ≥200 cells/μL in the multi-country MTCT-Plus Initiative Health systems and services in low and middle income settings

R. Charon Gwynn, Ashraf Fawzy, Ida Viho, Yingfeng Wu, Elaine J. Abrams, Denis Nash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: In resource-limited settings, many HIV-infected patients are lost to follow-up (LTF) before starting ART; risk factors among those not eligible for ART at enrollment into care are not well described. Methods: We examined data from 4,278 adults (3,613 women, 665 men) enrolled in HIV care through March 2007 in the MTCT-Plus Initiative with a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 and WHO stage & 2 at enrollment. Patients were considered LTF if>12 months elapsed since their last clinic visit. Gender-specific Cox regression models were used to assess LTF risk factors. Results: The proportion LTF was 8.2 % at 12 months following enrollment, and was higher among women (8.4 %) than men (7.1 %). Among women, a higher risk of LTF was associated with younger age (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR];: 2.8, 95 % CI:2.1-3.6; AHR;bsubesub1.9, 95 % CI:1.7-2.2), higher baseline CD4 count (AHR;bsubesub 95 % CI:1.0-2.1; AHR;bsubesub 95 % CI:1.0-2.0), and being pregnant at the last clinic visit (AHR:1.9, 95 % CI:1.4-2.5). Factors associated with a lower risk of LTF included, employment outside the home (AHR:0.73, 95 % CI:0.59-0.90), co-enrollment of a family/household member (AHR:0.40, 95 % CI:0.26-0.61), and living in a household with ≥4 people (AHR:0.74, 95 % CI:0.64-0.85). Among men, younger age (AHR;bsubesub: 2.1, 95 % CI:1.2-3.5 and AHR;bsubesub:1.5, 95 % CI:1.0-2.4) had a higher risk of LTF. Electricity in the home (AHR:0.61, 95 % CI:0.41-0.91) and living in a household with ≥4 people (AHR:0.58, 95 % CI:0.39-0.85) had a lower risk of LTF. Conclusions: Socio-economic status and social support may be important determinants of retention in patients not yet eligible for ART. Among women of child-bearing age, strategies around sustaining HIV care during and after pregnancy require attention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number247
JournalBMC health services research
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 12 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • Anti-retroviral therapy
  • HIV
  • Lost to follow up
  • Pre-ART
  • Risk factors
  • Social support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy

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