Risk factors for fecal and urinary incontinence after childbirth: The childbirth and pelvic symptoms study

Kathryn L. Burgio, Diane Borello-France, Holly E. Richter, Mary Pat Fitzgerald, William Whitehead, Victoria L Handa, Ingrid Nygaard, Paul Fine, Halina Zyczynski, Anthony G. Visco, Morton B. Brown, Anne M. Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for postpartum FI and UI. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the CAPS study, which estimated the prevalence of postpartum FI and UI in primiparous women with clinically recognized anal sphincter tears after vaginal delivery, compared with women who delivered vaginally without recognized tears or by cesarean before labor. A total of 921 women were enrolled while in the hospital and 759 (82%) were interviewed by telephone 6 months postpartum. FI was assessed using the FISI and UI using the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging Questionnaire. FI risk factor analyses were conducted within each group, because of higher prevalence in the tear group. UI analyses were conducted with the groups combined. RESULTS: In women with sphincter tears, FI at 6 months was associated with white race (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.3-29.4), antenatal UI (OR 2.2, CI 1.1-4.3), 4th versus 3rd degree tear (OR 2.0, CI 1.0-4.0), older age at delivery (OR 1.6 per 5 yr, CI 1.2-2.1), and higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.3 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.0-1.7). No factors were associated with FI in the vaginal or cesarean control groups. Across all groups, risk factors for postpartum UI were antenatal UI (OR 3.5, CI 2.4-5.2), less education (OR 2.0, CI 1.4-2.8), and higher BMI (OR 1.2 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.1-1.4); cesarean delivery was protective (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum FI and UI are associated with few modifiable risk factors. However, the presence of antenatal UI and high BMI may help clinicians target at-risk women for early intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1998-2004
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume102
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2007

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Fecal Incontinence
Urinary Incontinence
Postpartum Period
Tears
Parturition
Body Mass Index
Anal Canal
Telephone
Statistical Factor Analysis
Education
Control Groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Risk factors for fecal and urinary incontinence after childbirth : The childbirth and pelvic symptoms study. / Burgio, Kathryn L.; Borello-France, Diane; Richter, Holly E.; Fitzgerald, Mary Pat; Whitehead, William; Handa, Victoria L; Nygaard, Ingrid; Fine, Paul; Zyczynski, Halina; Visco, Anthony G.; Brown, Morton B.; Weber, Anne M.

In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 102, No. 9, 09.2007, p. 1998-2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Burgio, KL, Borello-France, D, Richter, HE, Fitzgerald, MP, Whitehead, W, Handa, VL, Nygaard, I, Fine, P, Zyczynski, H, Visco, AG, Brown, MB & Weber, AM 2007, 'Risk factors for fecal and urinary incontinence after childbirth: The childbirth and pelvic symptoms study', American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 1998-2004. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01364.x
Burgio, Kathryn L. ; Borello-France, Diane ; Richter, Holly E. ; Fitzgerald, Mary Pat ; Whitehead, William ; Handa, Victoria L ; Nygaard, Ingrid ; Fine, Paul ; Zyczynski, Halina ; Visco, Anthony G. ; Brown, Morton B. ; Weber, Anne M. / Risk factors for fecal and urinary incontinence after childbirth : The childbirth and pelvic symptoms study. In: American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007 ; Vol. 102, No. 9. pp. 1998-2004.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for postpartum FI and UI. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the CAPS study, which estimated the prevalence of postpartum FI and UI in primiparous women with clinically recognized anal sphincter tears after vaginal delivery, compared with women who delivered vaginally without recognized tears or by cesarean before labor. A total of 921 women were enrolled while in the hospital and 759 (82{\%}) were interviewed by telephone 6 months postpartum. FI was assessed using the FISI and UI using the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging Questionnaire. FI risk factor analyses were conducted within each group, because of higher prevalence in the tear group. UI analyses were conducted with the groups combined. RESULTS: In women with sphincter tears, FI at 6 months was associated with white race (OR 6.1, 95{\%} CI 1.3-29.4), antenatal UI (OR 2.2, CI 1.1-4.3), 4th versus 3rd degree tear (OR 2.0, CI 1.0-4.0), older age at delivery (OR 1.6 per 5 yr, CI 1.2-2.1), and higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.3 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.0-1.7). No factors were associated with FI in the vaginal or cesarean control groups. Across all groups, risk factors for postpartum UI were antenatal UI (OR 3.5, CI 2.4-5.2), less education (OR 2.0, CI 1.4-2.8), and higher BMI (OR 1.2 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.1-1.4); cesarean delivery was protective (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum FI and UI are associated with few modifiable risk factors. However, the presence of antenatal UI and high BMI may help clinicians target at-risk women for early intervention.",
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AU - Burgio, Kathryn L.

AU - Borello-France, Diane

AU - Richter, Holly E.

AU - Fitzgerald, Mary Pat

AU - Whitehead, William

AU - Handa, Victoria L

AU - Nygaard, Ingrid

AU - Fine, Paul

AU - Zyczynski, Halina

AU - Visco, Anthony G.

AU - Brown, Morton B.

AU - Weber, Anne M.

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N2 - OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for postpartum FI and UI. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the CAPS study, which estimated the prevalence of postpartum FI and UI in primiparous women with clinically recognized anal sphincter tears after vaginal delivery, compared with women who delivered vaginally without recognized tears or by cesarean before labor. A total of 921 women were enrolled while in the hospital and 759 (82%) were interviewed by telephone 6 months postpartum. FI was assessed using the FISI and UI using the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging Questionnaire. FI risk factor analyses were conducted within each group, because of higher prevalence in the tear group. UI analyses were conducted with the groups combined. RESULTS: In women with sphincter tears, FI at 6 months was associated with white race (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.3-29.4), antenatal UI (OR 2.2, CI 1.1-4.3), 4th versus 3rd degree tear (OR 2.0, CI 1.0-4.0), older age at delivery (OR 1.6 per 5 yr, CI 1.2-2.1), and higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.3 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.0-1.7). No factors were associated with FI in the vaginal or cesarean control groups. Across all groups, risk factors for postpartum UI were antenatal UI (OR 3.5, CI 2.4-5.2), less education (OR 2.0, CI 1.4-2.8), and higher BMI (OR 1.2 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.1-1.4); cesarean delivery was protective (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum FI and UI are associated with few modifiable risk factors. However, the presence of antenatal UI and high BMI may help clinicians target at-risk women for early intervention.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for postpartum FI and UI. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the CAPS study, which estimated the prevalence of postpartum FI and UI in primiparous women with clinically recognized anal sphincter tears after vaginal delivery, compared with women who delivered vaginally without recognized tears or by cesarean before labor. A total of 921 women were enrolled while in the hospital and 759 (82%) were interviewed by telephone 6 months postpartum. FI was assessed using the FISI and UI using the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging Questionnaire. FI risk factor analyses were conducted within each group, because of higher prevalence in the tear group. UI analyses were conducted with the groups combined. RESULTS: In women with sphincter tears, FI at 6 months was associated with white race (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.3-29.4), antenatal UI (OR 2.2, CI 1.1-4.3), 4th versus 3rd degree tear (OR 2.0, CI 1.0-4.0), older age at delivery (OR 1.6 per 5 yr, CI 1.2-2.1), and higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.3 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.0-1.7). No factors were associated with FI in the vaginal or cesarean control groups. Across all groups, risk factors for postpartum UI were antenatal UI (OR 3.5, CI 2.4-5.2), less education (OR 2.0, CI 1.4-2.8), and higher BMI (OR 1.2 per 5 kg/m2, CI 1.1-1.4); cesarean delivery was protective (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum FI and UI are associated with few modifiable risk factors. However, the presence of antenatal UI and high BMI may help clinicians target at-risk women for early intervention.

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