Background: Approximately 40% of all Enterobacterales (EB) bloodstream infections (BSIs) among solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms, but risk factors for such infections remain ill defined in this population. We sought to determine the risk factors for ESBL-EB BSIs among SOTRs. Methods: A multicenter case-control study was performed. All SOTRs with an EB BSI at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and University of Maryland Medical Center between 1 January 2007 and 30 June 2018 and at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015 were included. Cases were those with an ESBL-EB BSI. Controls were those with a non-ESBL-EB BSI. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for ESBL-EB BSI. Results: There were 988 episodes of EB BSI, of which 395 (40%) were due to an ESBL-EB. On multivariable analysis, the independent risk factors for ESBL-EB BSI included: ESBL-EB on prior culture (aOR, 12.75; 95% CI, 3.23-50.33; P < .001), a corticosteroid-containing immunosuppression regimen (aOR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.65; P = .030), acute rejection treated with corticosteroids (aOR 1.18; 95% CI 1.16-1.19; P < .001), and exposure to third-generation cephalosporins (aOR 1.95; 95% CI 1.48-2.57; P < .001), echinocandins (aOR 1.61; 95% CI 1.08-2.40; P = .020), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (aOR 1.35; 95% CI 1.10-1.64; P = .003). Conclusions: We identified several novel risk factors that are uniquely important to the SOTR population, including exposure to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and corticosteroid-containing immunosuppressive regimens. Further studies exploring these associations and testing interventions aimed at these modifiable risk factors among SOTRs are needed.
- bloodstream infection
- extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases