Risk factors associated with cluster size of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of different RFLP lineages in Brazil

Renata Lyrio Peres, Solange Alves Vinhas, Fabíola Karla Correa Ribeiro, Moisés Palaci, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Bárbara Reis-Santos, Eliana Zandonade, Philip Noel Suffys, Jonathan E Golub, Lee W. Riley, Ethel Leonor Maciel

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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) transmission is influenced by patient-related risk, environment and bacteriological factors. We determined the risk factors associated with cluster size of IS6110 RFLP based genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates from Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study of new TB cases identified in the metropolitan area of Vitoria, Brazil between 2000 and 2010. Mtb isolates were genotyped by the IS6110 RFLP, spoligotyping and RDRio. The isolates were classified according to genotype cluster sizes by three genotyping methods and associated patient epidemiologic characteristics. Regression Model was performed to identify factors associated with cluster size. Results: Among 959 Mtb isolates, 461 (48%) cases had an isolate that belonged to an RFLP cluster, and six clusters with ten or more isolates were identified. Of the isolates spoligotyped, 448 (52%) were classified as LAM and 412 (48%) as non-LAM. Our regression model found that 6-9 isolates/RFLP cluster were more likely belong to the LAM family, having the RDRio genotype and to be smear-positive (adjusted OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.26; adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37; crude OR=2.68, 95% IC 1.13-6.34; respectively) and living in a Serra city neighborhood decrease the risk of being in the 6-9 isolates/RFLP cluster (adjusted OR=0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), than in the others groups. Individuals aged 21 to 30, 31 to 40 and >50 years were less likely of belonging the 2-5 isolates/RFLP cluster than unique patterns compared to individuals <20 years of age (adjusted OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.85, OR=0.43 95% CI 0.24-0.77and OR=0. 49, 95% CI 0.26-0.91), respectively. The extrapulmonary disease was less likely to occur in those infected with strains in the 2-5 isolates/cluster group (adjustment OR=0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85) than unique patterns. Conclusions: We found that a large proportion of new TB infections in Vitoria is caused by prevalent Mtb genotypes belonging to the LAM family and RDRio genotypes. Such information demonstrates that some genotypes are more likely to cause recent transmission. Targeting interventions such as screening in specific areas and social risk groups, should be a priority for reducing transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number71
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 8 2018

Keywords

  • Cluster size
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Risk factors
  • Transmission
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

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    Peres, R. L., Vinhas, S. A., Ribeiro, F. K. C., Palaci, M., do Prado, T. N., Reis-Santos, B., Zandonade, E., Suffys, P. N., Golub, J. E., Riley, L. W., & Maciel, E. L. (2018). Risk factors associated with cluster size of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of different RFLP lineages in Brazil. BMC Infectious Diseases, 18(1), [71]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-2969-0