INTRODUCTION: Maxillary hypoplasia after cleft lip and palate (CLP) repair can result in significant functional and aesthetic impairments. Le Fort I osteotomy & advancement and Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis are standard treatment options for individuals with CLP-associated midface retrusion. However, both of these modalities continue to be associated with a high relapse rate. This study describes surgical outcomes of a 2-stage technique utilizing distraction osteogenesis combined with bone grafting and rigid fixation, which may optimize skeletal stability by reducing relapse. METHODS: A retrospective review of CLP patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia evaluated by a single surgeon from 2003 to 2014 was performed. Twenty-one subjects were identified that underwent maxillary advancement via a 2-stage technique: (1) Le Fort I external rigid distraction using a HALO device, followed by (2) autologous iliac crest bone graft application and plate-fixation. Post-operative cephalograms were taken on average 1-year following surgery. RESULTS: Twelve subjects met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. A distraction rate of 1 mm/day was achieved with an average of 14 mm of maxillary advancement. Average increase in SNA was +9.03°, with an increase from 71.84° to 80.88° (normal = 82.0°, P value <0.0001), with no significant change in SNB, and a +9.63° change in ANB from -7.76° to 1.88° (normal = 1.6°, P value <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The described 2-step procedure had similar cephalometric improvements as compared to distraction osteogenesis alone. However, successive bone grafting and rigid fixation as a second procedure may help ameliorate relapse risk and optimize the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in susceptible populations.
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