Among 227 patients undergoing outpatient balloon embolotherapy for varicocele, venography of the right internal spermatic vein (ISV) was attempted in 48. A percutaneous technique from the right femoral vein was used for all patients. The right ISV was successfully occluded with detachable balloons in 41 of 46 (89%), while in five (11%), the right ISV could not be embolized. A competent valve was found in two patients. The right ISV alone was embolized in ten patients: one had a solitary right varicocele, six had left varicoceles but competent valves in the left ISV, and three had recurrent left varicoceles after successful left ISV occlusion. Bilateral ISV embolization was achieved in 31 patients. Long-term follow-up study was available for 25 patients; 12 couples (48%) achieved a pregnancy. Percutaneous balloon occlusion of right varicoceles is a safe, effective outpatient technique.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging