Rifapentine, moxifloxacin, or DNA vaccine improves treatment of latent tuberculosis in a mouse model

Eric Nuermberger, Sandeep Tyagi, Kathy N. Williams, Ian Rosenthal, William R. Bishai, Jacques H. Grosset

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Rationale: Priorities for developing improved regimens for treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection include (1) developing shorter and/or more intermittently administered regimens that are easier to supervise and (2) developing and evaluating regimens that are active against multidrug-resistant organisms. Objectives and Methods: By using a previously validated murine model that involves immunizing mice with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin to augment host immunity before infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we evaluated new treatment regimens including rifapentine and moxifloxacin, and assessed the potential of the Mycobacterium leprae heat shock protein-65 DNA vaccine to augment the activity of moxifloxacin. Measurements: Quantitative spleen colony-forming unit counts, and the proportion of mice with culture-positive relapse after treatment, were determined. Main Results: Three-month, once-weekly regimens of rifapentine combined with either isoniazid or moxifloxacin were as active as daily isoniazid for 6-9 mo. Six-month daily combinations of moxifloxacin with pyrazinamide, ethionamide, or ethambutol were more active than pyrazinamide plus ethambutol, a regimen recommended for latent TB infection after exposure to multidrug-resistant TB. The combination of moxifloxacin with the experimental nitroimidazopyran PA-824 was especially active. Finally, the heat shock protein-65 DNA vaccine had no effect on colony-forming unit counts when given alone, but augmented the bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin. Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that rifapentine, moxifloxacin, and, perhaps, therapeutic DNA vaccination have the potential to improve on the current treatment of latent TB infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1452-1456
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Volume172
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2005

Keywords

  • DNA vaccine
  • Latency
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Rifapentine
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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