To determine the efficacy of rifampin chemprophylaxis in eradication of oropharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b, we conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among household contracts of patients hospitalized for invasive HIB infection. Seventy-nine index patients and 400 close contacts were studied; 26.5% of contacts were colonized. The efficacy of rifampin (10 mg/kg/dose 600 mg/dose maximum, twice daily for two days) in eradicating carriage was 52% and varied with age (75.6% in persons >-5 and 27% in those <5 years). Eradication rates in those <5 years were not significantly better than for placebo. No resistant isolates were encountered in sensitivity testing. The low efficacy of this rifampin regimen in young children precludes its routine use as a chemoprophylactic agent for family contacts. The occurrence of three cases of invasive HIB infection in individuals outside the defined contact group raises concern regarding the efficacy of any chemoprophylactic regimen.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health