Introduction: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects all races. Whether the progression of ADPKD varies by race remains unclear. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study from 2004 to 2013 non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites of all ages classified in the US Renal Data System (USRDS) with incident ESRD from ADPKD (n = 23,647), hypertension/large vessel disease (n = 296,352), or diabetes mellitus (n = 451,760) were stratified into five-year age categories ranging from < 40 to > 75 (e.g., < 40, 40-44, 45-49, ..., 75+). The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to determine the association of race and incidence of ESRD from ADPKD, diabetes, or hypertension. The difference in the proportions of ESRD in non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white patients at each age categorical bin was compared by two-sample proportion test. The age of ESRD onset between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white patients at each year was compared using two-sample t-test with unequal variance. Results: 1.068% of non-Hispanic blacks and 2.778% of non-Hispanic whites had ESRD attributed to ADPKD. Non-Hispanic blacks were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to have ESRD attributed to ADPKD (odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.36-0.39), p < 0.0001). Using US Census data as the denominator to adjust for population differences non-Hispanic blacks were still slightly under-represented (OR (95% CI) 0.94 (0.91-0.96), p = 0.004). However, non-Hispanic blacks with ADPKD had a younger age of ESRD (54.4 years ±13) than non-Hispanic whites (55.9 years ±12.8) (p < 0.0001). For those < 40 years old, more non-Hispanic blacks had incident ESRD from ADPKD than non-Hispanic whites (9.49% vs. 7.68%, difference (95% CI) = 1.81% (0.87-2.84%), p < 0.001) for the combined years examined. Conclusions: As previously shown, we find the incidence of ESRD from ADPKD in non-Hispanic blacks is lower than in non-Hispanic whites. Among the younger ADPKD population (age < 40), however, more non-Hispanic blacks initiated dialysis than non-Hispanic whites. Non-Hispanic blacks with ADPKD initiated dialysis younger than non-Hispanic whites. A potential implication of these findings may be that black race should be considered an additional risk factor for progression in ADPKD.
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
- End-stage renal disease (ESRD)
- United States renal data system (USRDS)
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