Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a recurrent neuroinflammatory disease of the optic nerves and spinal cord associated with the anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody biomarker, NMO-IgG. As clinical and scientific research interest in NMO grows, the need for an animal model becomes more urgent. Over the past few years, several groups have developed rodent models that partially represent human NMO disease. Passive transfer of the NMO-IgG is not pathogenic alone, but in certain contexts can recruit granulocytes and lead to increased inflammation. Studies of the cellular immune response against AQP4 have also shed light on the roles of B and T cells in NMO, especially focusing on the role of Th17 T helper cells. This review discusses the contribution of the available NMO animal models to the understanding of NMO disease pathogenesis.
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
- Neuromyelitis optica
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology