Purpose: Vitrectomy with fluid-gas exchange has been shown to close more than one half of full-thickness macular holes, with improvement in visual acuity. By adding the appropriate dose of transforming growth factor-beta 2, a higher success rate has been reported. However, there still remain cases of macular holes that fail to close after vitreous surgery. The current pilot study is designed to determine whether reoperation may have a role in the management of cases that fail after vitreous surgery. Methods: Twelve eyes with persistent full-thickness macular holes that failed to close after an initial vitrectomy underwent reoperation using 1330 ng transforming growth factor-beta 2. Results: After the second operation, closure occurred in 12 (100%) of 12 eyes. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 16 months. Visual acuity also improved by two or more lines in 5 (42%) of 12 patients. Increased nuclear sclerosis occurred in nine (90%) of the ten phakic eyes. Of the five eyes showing visual improvement, four required cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Conclusion: Retreatment of persistent full-thickness macular holes with trans-forming growth factor-beta 2 appears to have a beneficial effect on both neurosensory retinal flattening and visual outcome.
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