Retinal findings and characteristics in AIDS patients with systemic Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex and toxoplasmic encephalitis

J. Fernando Arevalo, José I. Quiceno, Roberto F. García, J. Allen McCutchan, David Munguia, Julie A. Nelson, William R. Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of retinal and choroidal manifestations of toxoplasmosis and/or Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors analyzed their prospectively collected data and found 120 patients with new retinal lesions (group A) that were diagnosed 3 months or longer following the diagnosis of MAC and/or toxoplasmic encephalitis. The authors also performed a point prevalence study of retinal/choroidal findings in 25 consecutive AIDS patients (group B) without known eye disease who had been recently treated for toxoplasmic encephalitis and/or disseminated MAC infections. In addition, the characteristics of retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis scars in 5 AIDS patients were studied and compared with the characteristics of scars in 18 immunocompetent patients. RESULTS: In this study the incidence of ocular manifestations of MAC was zero (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0% to 3.8%). Two of 25 patients (8%) (95% CI 1% to 26%) in group A and 2 of 11 patients (18.1%) (95% CI 3.3% to 51.8%) in group B had toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. CONCLUSION: In AIDS patients, ocular manifestations of toxoplasmosis are more common than ocular MAC. In addition, when compared with immunocompetent patients, AIDS patients tend to have retinochoroidal scars with less retinal pigment epithelium hyperplasia (1.8+ vs 3+) (P = .03).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-54
Number of pages5
JournalOphthalmic Surgery and Lasers
Volume28
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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