Retinal and choroidal vasculature in rats with spontaneous diabetes type 2 treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril: Corrosion cast and electron-microscopic study

Imran Ahmed Bhutto, Zhong Yang Lu, Yumiko Takami, Tsugio Amemiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor cilazapril on retinal and choroidal circulation in rats with spontaneous diabetes type 2 were assessed by corrosion casts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. One group of 20 male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats was treated with 10 mg/kg/day of cilazapril from 4 to 64 weeks of age, and 20 other OLETF rats received no treatment. A third group, 20 male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, served as age-matched controls. At regular intervals, the rats were weighed, and their blood glucose was measured. Before the experiment, their systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol level were determined. At 64 weeks of age, the OLETF rats weighed significantly less than the cilazapril-treated OLETF and the LETO rats (p <0.0001). At the same age, 100% of the untreated OLETF rats had bilateral cataracts, while the lens was clear and no fundus abnormality was detected in the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats and the LETO rats. Cilazapril lowered systolic blood pressure to a nearly normal level, significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increase in serum cholesterol in the OLETF rats throughout the treatment. In the 64-week-old OLETF rats without treatment, corrosion cast and SEM revealed diabetic retinal and choroidal vascular changes: tortuosity of the vessels, variations in caliber, narrowing of arteries, arterio-arteriolar anastomoses and hairpin loop formation in precapillary arterioles, sparse collecting venules in the choroid and marked capillary changes such as caliber irregularity, narrowing, tortuosity, loop formation and decreased capillaries, outpouching and microaneurysms. In the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats, these changes were markedly decreased to the level seen in the LETO rats, in which the retinal and choroidal blood vessels had a definite and fairly constant pattern and the capillaries were more regularly and densely arranged and had a remarkably uniform caliber. Our results show that the long-term administration of cilazapril before or from the initial onset significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increases in serum cholesterol in OLETF rats throughout the treatment, lowered systolic arterial pressure to a nearly normal level and prevented diabetic ocular complications. The effects of cilazapril on the diabetic retinal and choroidal vasculature are described for the first time. SEM of corrosion casts is a valuable and easy technique for showing precisely and three-dimensionally the effects of some drugs on the vasculature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)220-231
Number of pages12
JournalOphthalmic Research
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cilazapril
Inbred OLETF Rats
Corrosion
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Electrons
Blood Pressure
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Blood Glucose
Retinal Vessels
Cholesterol
Choroid
Venules
Arterioles
Diabetes Complications

Keywords

  • Blood glucose
  • Cholesterol
  • Choroidal vessels
  • Cilazapril
  • Corrosion cast
  • Electron microscopy
  • OLETF rat
  • Retinal vessels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

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title = "Retinal and choroidal vasculature in rats with spontaneous diabetes type 2 treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril: Corrosion cast and electron-microscopic study",
abstract = "The long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor cilazapril on retinal and choroidal circulation in rats with spontaneous diabetes type 2 were assessed by corrosion casts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. One group of 20 male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats was treated with 10 mg/kg/day of cilazapril from 4 to 64 weeks of age, and 20 other OLETF rats received no treatment. A third group, 20 male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, served as age-matched controls. At regular intervals, the rats were weighed, and their blood glucose was measured. Before the experiment, their systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol level were determined. At 64 weeks of age, the OLETF rats weighed significantly less than the cilazapril-treated OLETF and the LETO rats (p <0.0001). At the same age, 100{\%} of the untreated OLETF rats had bilateral cataracts, while the lens was clear and no fundus abnormality was detected in the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats and the LETO rats. Cilazapril lowered systolic blood pressure to a nearly normal level, significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increase in serum cholesterol in the OLETF rats throughout the treatment. In the 64-week-old OLETF rats without treatment, corrosion cast and SEM revealed diabetic retinal and choroidal vascular changes: tortuosity of the vessels, variations in caliber, narrowing of arteries, arterio-arteriolar anastomoses and hairpin loop formation in precapillary arterioles, sparse collecting venules in the choroid and marked capillary changes such as caliber irregularity, narrowing, tortuosity, loop formation and decreased capillaries, outpouching and microaneurysms. In the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats, these changes were markedly decreased to the level seen in the LETO rats, in which the retinal and choroidal blood vessels had a definite and fairly constant pattern and the capillaries were more regularly and densely arranged and had a remarkably uniform caliber. Our results show that the long-term administration of cilazapril before or from the initial onset significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increases in serum cholesterol in OLETF rats throughout the treatment, lowered systolic arterial pressure to a nearly normal level and prevented diabetic ocular complications. The effects of cilazapril on the diabetic retinal and choroidal vasculature are described for the first time. SEM of corrosion casts is a valuable and easy technique for showing precisely and three-dimensionally the effects of some drugs on the vasculature.",
keywords = "Blood glucose, Cholesterol, Choroidal vessels, Cilazapril, Corrosion cast, Electron microscopy, OLETF rat, Retinal vessels",
author = "Bhutto, {Imran Ahmed} and Lu, {Zhong Yang} and Yumiko Takami and Tsugio Amemiya",
year = "2002",
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journal = "Ophthalmic Research",
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T1 - Retinal and choroidal vasculature in rats with spontaneous diabetes type 2 treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril

T2 - Corrosion cast and electron-microscopic study

AU - Bhutto, Imran Ahmed

AU - Lu, Zhong Yang

AU - Takami, Yumiko

AU - Amemiya, Tsugio

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - The long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor cilazapril on retinal and choroidal circulation in rats with spontaneous diabetes type 2 were assessed by corrosion casts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. One group of 20 male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats was treated with 10 mg/kg/day of cilazapril from 4 to 64 weeks of age, and 20 other OLETF rats received no treatment. A third group, 20 male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, served as age-matched controls. At regular intervals, the rats were weighed, and their blood glucose was measured. Before the experiment, their systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol level were determined. At 64 weeks of age, the OLETF rats weighed significantly less than the cilazapril-treated OLETF and the LETO rats (p <0.0001). At the same age, 100% of the untreated OLETF rats had bilateral cataracts, while the lens was clear and no fundus abnormality was detected in the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats and the LETO rats. Cilazapril lowered systolic blood pressure to a nearly normal level, significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increase in serum cholesterol in the OLETF rats throughout the treatment. In the 64-week-old OLETF rats without treatment, corrosion cast and SEM revealed diabetic retinal and choroidal vascular changes: tortuosity of the vessels, variations in caliber, narrowing of arteries, arterio-arteriolar anastomoses and hairpin loop formation in precapillary arterioles, sparse collecting venules in the choroid and marked capillary changes such as caliber irregularity, narrowing, tortuosity, loop formation and decreased capillaries, outpouching and microaneurysms. In the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats, these changes were markedly decreased to the level seen in the LETO rats, in which the retinal and choroidal blood vessels had a definite and fairly constant pattern and the capillaries were more regularly and densely arranged and had a remarkably uniform caliber. Our results show that the long-term administration of cilazapril before or from the initial onset significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increases in serum cholesterol in OLETF rats throughout the treatment, lowered systolic arterial pressure to a nearly normal level and prevented diabetic ocular complications. The effects of cilazapril on the diabetic retinal and choroidal vasculature are described for the first time. SEM of corrosion casts is a valuable and easy technique for showing precisely and three-dimensionally the effects of some drugs on the vasculature.

AB - The long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor cilazapril on retinal and choroidal circulation in rats with spontaneous diabetes type 2 were assessed by corrosion casts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. One group of 20 male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats was treated with 10 mg/kg/day of cilazapril from 4 to 64 weeks of age, and 20 other OLETF rats received no treatment. A third group, 20 male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, served as age-matched controls. At regular intervals, the rats were weighed, and their blood glucose was measured. Before the experiment, their systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol level were determined. At 64 weeks of age, the OLETF rats weighed significantly less than the cilazapril-treated OLETF and the LETO rats (p <0.0001). At the same age, 100% of the untreated OLETF rats had bilateral cataracts, while the lens was clear and no fundus abnormality was detected in the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats and the LETO rats. Cilazapril lowered systolic blood pressure to a nearly normal level, significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increase in serum cholesterol in the OLETF rats throughout the treatment. In the 64-week-old OLETF rats without treatment, corrosion cast and SEM revealed diabetic retinal and choroidal vascular changes: tortuosity of the vessels, variations in caliber, narrowing of arteries, arterio-arteriolar anastomoses and hairpin loop formation in precapillary arterioles, sparse collecting venules in the choroid and marked capillary changes such as caliber irregularity, narrowing, tortuosity, loop formation and decreased capillaries, outpouching and microaneurysms. In the cilazapril-treated OLETF rats, these changes were markedly decreased to the level seen in the LETO rats, in which the retinal and choroidal blood vessels had a definite and fairly constant pattern and the capillaries were more regularly and densely arranged and had a remarkably uniform caliber. Our results show that the long-term administration of cilazapril before or from the initial onset significantly prevented the increase in blood sugar and inhibited the increases in serum cholesterol in OLETF rats throughout the treatment, lowered systolic arterial pressure to a nearly normal level and prevented diabetic ocular complications. The effects of cilazapril on the diabetic retinal and choroidal vasculature are described for the first time. SEM of corrosion casts is a valuable and easy technique for showing precisely and three-dimensionally the effects of some drugs on the vasculature.

KW - Blood glucose

KW - Cholesterol

KW - Choroidal vessels

KW - Cilazapril

KW - Corrosion cast

KW - Electron microscopy

KW - OLETF rat

KW - Retinal vessels

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