Background: Polynitroxylated PEGylated hemoglobin (PNPH, aka SanFlow) possesses superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic activities that may directly protect the brain from oxidative stress. Stabilization of PNPH with bound carbon monoxide prevents methemoglobin formation during storage and permits it to serve as a carbon monoxide donor. We determined whether small volume transfusion of hyperoncotic PNPH is neuroprotective in a polytrauma model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock. Guinea pigs were used because, like humans, they do not synthesize their own ascorbic acid, which is important in reducing methemoglobin. Results: TBI was produced by controlled cortical impact and was followed by 20 mL/kg hemorrhage to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg. At 90 min, animals were resuscitated with 20 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution or 10 mL/kg PNPH. Resuscitation with PNPH significantly augmented the early recovery of MAP after hemorrhagic shock by 10-18 mmHg; whole blood methemoglobin was only 1% higher and carboxyhemoglobin was 2% higher. At 9 days of recovery, unbiased stereology analysis revealed that, compared to animals resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution, those treated with PNPH had significantly more viable neurons in the hippocampus CA1 + 2 region (59 ± 10% versus 87 ± 18% of sham and naïve mean value) and in the dentate gyrus (70 ± 21% versus 96 ± 24%; n = 12 per group). Conclusion: PNPH may serve as a small-volume resuscitation fluid for polytrauma involving TBI and hemorrhagic shock. The neuroprotection afforded by PNPH seen in other species was sustained in a species without endogenous ascorbic acid synthesis, thereby supporting potential translatability for human use.
- Carbon monoxide
- Controlled cortical impact
- Guinea pig
- Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience