A new iterative extrapolation image reconstruction algorithm is presented, which enhances low resolution metabolic magnetic resonance images (MRI) with information about the bounds of signal sources obtained from a priori anatomic proton (1H) MRI. The algorithm ameliorates partial volume and ringing artefacts, leaving unchanged local metabolic heterogeneity that is present in the original dataset but not evident at 1H MRI. Therefore, it is ideally suited to metabolic studies of ischemia, infarction and other diseases where the extent of the abnormality at 1H MRI is uncertain. The performance of the algorithm is assessed by simulations, MRI of phantoms, and by surface coil 23Na MRI studies of canine myocardial infarction on a clinical scanner where the injury was not evident at 1H MRI. The algorithm includes corrections for transverse field inhomogeneity, and for the leakage of intense signals into regions of interest such as 23Na MRI signals from ventricular blood ringing into the myocardium. The simulations showed that the algorithm reduced ringing artefacts by 15%, was stable at low SNR (≃7), but is sensitive to the positioning of the 1H MRI boundaries. The 23Na MRI showed hyperenhancement of regions identified as infarcted at post-mortem histological staining. The areas of hyperenhancement were measured by five independent observers in four 23Na images of infarction reconstructed with and without the algorithm. The infarct areas were correlated with areas determined by post-mortem histological staining with coefficient 0.85 for the enhanced images, compared to 0.58 with the conventional images. The scatter in the amplitude and in the area measurements of ischemia-associated hyper- enhancement in 23Na MRI was reduced by the algorithm by 1.6-fold and by at least 3-fold, respectively, demonstrating its ability to substantially improve quantification of the extent and intensity of metabolic changes in injured tissue that is not evident by 1H MRI. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.
- Image processing
- Myocardial infarction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging