The bone marrow is a target organ for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the mechanisms by which suppression of hematopoiesis occurs during the course of HIV infection are not well understood. To study this issue, the effect of several different HIV-1 isolates (monotrophic and lymphotrophic) and one HIV-2 isolate on in vitro colony formation by BFU-E and CFU-GM from normal human marrow were examined. The monotrophic strain AD-87 (M) failed to replicate in marrow cultures as documented by RT, and colony formation by BFU-E and CFU-GM was unaffected by this virus. A derivative of this isolate AD-87 (M-P), which was replicated in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), however, replicated well and markedly inhibited colony formation by BFU-E and CFU-GM. Two additional PBL isolates replicated less efficiently; neither inhibited CFU-GM but one consistently inhibited BFU-E colony formation. Inhibition of colony formation by the HIV-1 isolates was a late event, presumably a secondary lysis of cells, since up to 7 days after inoculation colony numbers were normal but diminished markedly by 10 days, and since only up to 10% of the cells of the monocyte lineage contained detectable virus by in situ, EM, and IFA studies. In contrast, the HIV-2 isolate was so lytic that by 4 days after inoculation the majority of the marrow cells were destroyed.
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