The magnitude and durability of immune responses induced by replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 (ADV5) vector-based vaccines were evaluated in the simian-human immunodeficiency virus/rhesus monkey model. A single inoculation of recombinant ADV5 vector constructs induced cellular and humoral immunity, but the rapid generation of neutralizing anti-Ad5 antibodies limited the immunity induced by repeated vector administration. The magnitude and durability of the immune responses elicited by these vaccines were greater when they were delivered as boosting immunogens in plasmid DNA-primed monkeys than when they were used as single-modality immunogens. Therefore, administration of ADV5-based vectors in DNA-primed subjects may be a preferred use of this vaccine modality for generating long-term immune protection.
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