Background: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is offered to select patients with peritoneal metastases. In instances of recurrence/progression, a repeat CRS/HIPEC may be considered. The perioperative morbidity and the potential oncologic benefits are not well described. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a multiinstitutional database to assess the perioperative outcomes following repeat CRS/HIPEC (repeat). Kaplan–Meier and Cox estimates were used to assess survival. Results: In the entire cohort, 2157 patients were analyzed, with 158 (7.3%) in the repeat cohort. The rate of complete cytoreduction was 89.8% versus 83.0% in initial versus repeat groups. The overall incidence of major complications was similar (26.3% vs. 30.7%); however, reoperation was more common in the repeat group. Perioperative outcomes such as length of stay and nonhome discharge were not significantly different. For the entire cohort, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 56.0% in the initial group and 59.5% in the repeat group. In patients with only appendiceal cancer, we observed a 5-year OS of 64.0% in the initial group compared with 67.3% in the repeat cohort. For patients with appendiceal cancer who developed a recurrence/progression, median OS was 36 months in the no repeat operation group compared with 73 months for those that did. Multivariable regression demonstrated that completeness of cytoreduction and tumor grade were associated with OS, but repeat operation was not. Conclusions: Repeat CRS/HIPEC is not associated with prohibitive risk. Survival is possibly improved, and therefore, repeat operation should be considered in selected patients with recurrent or progressive disease.
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