Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides, renal morbidity is common. End-stage renal disease occurs in up to 20% of patients with these diagnoses, which include Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis. As the mortality of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis continues to improve, our ability to address the consequences of renal failure in this patient population becomes paramount. Renal transplantation is an important therapeutic option for these patients. Graft and patient survival rates among patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis are comparable to those observed in nondiabetic patients. This review summarizes our current knowledge of indications and contraindications for renal transplantation in these patients, the recurrence of vasculitis after transplantation and the impact of posttransplant immunosuppression on the clinical course of these patients.
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