Adenovirus replication is controlled by the relocalization or modification of nuclear protein complexes, including promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear domains and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) DNA damage machinery. In this study, we demonstrated that the E4 ORF3 protein effects the relocalization of both PML and MRN proteins to similar structures within the nucleus at early times after infection. These proteins colocalize with E4 ORF3. Through the analysis of specific viral mutants, we found a direct correlation between MRN reorganization at early times after infection and the establishment of viral DNA replication domains. Further, ihe reorganization of MRN components may be uncoupled from the ability of E4 ORF3 to rearrange PML. At later stages of infection, components of the MRN complex disperse within the nucleus, Nbs1 is found within viral replication centers, Rad50 remains localized with E4 ORF3, and Mre11 is degraded. The importance of viral regulation of the MRN complex is underscored by the complementation of E4 mutant viruses in cells that lack Mre11 or Nbs1 activity. These results illustrate the importance of nuclear organization in virus growth and suggest that E4 ORF3 regulates activities in both PML nuclear bodies and the MRN complex to stimulate the viral replication program.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science