To reduce the ambiguity of contradictory observations in different studies regarding the expression level of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1) in serum in prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy controls (HC), we designed this double-blind study. The study comprises 240 sera from PC, BPH and HC subjects. The expression level of MIC-1 in PC, BPH and HC were appraised using Western blot (WB) and ELISA based approach. WB and ELISA appraisal reveals that the expression level of MIC-1 is significantly higher in PC than in HC or BPH subjects. Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between MIC-1 vs. PSA (r = 0.09; p < 0.001) and MIC-1 vs. GS (r = 0.7; p < 0.001). ROC analysis using discriminant predicted probability revealed that the MIC-1 was better than PSA. Moreover, the combination of MIC-1 and PSA was allowing 99.1% AUC for the differentiation of BPH + PC from HC, 97.9% AUC for differentiation of BPH from HC, 98.6% AUC for differentiation of PC from HC, and 96.7% AUC for the differentiation of PC from BPH. The augmented expression of MIC-1 in PC compared to BPH and HC subjects is in concurrent of the over-expression of MIC-1 in PC reports and confiscates the contradictory findings of other studies.
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