Despite high viral loads, T cells from sooty mangabey (SM) monkeys that are naturally infected with SIV but remain clinically asymptomatic, proliferate and demonstrate normal Ag-specific memory recall CD4+ T cell responses. In contrast, CD4+ T cells from rhesus macaques (RM) experimentally infected with SIV lose Ag-specific memory recall responses and develop immunological anergy. To elucidate the mechanisms for these distinct outcomes of lentiviral infection, highly enriched alloreactive CD4+ T cells from humans, RM, and SM were anergized by TCR-only stimulation (signal 1 alone) and subsequently challenged with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs (signals 1 + 2). Whereas alloreactive CD4+ T cells from humans and RM became anergized, surprisingly, CD4+ T cells from SM showed marked proliferation and IL-2 synthesis after restimulation. This resistance to undergo anergy was not secondary to a global deficiency in anergy induction of CD4+ T cells from SM since incubation of CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3 alone in the presence of rapamycin readily induced anergy in these cells. The resistance to undergo anergy was reasoned to be due to the ability of CD4+ T cells from SM to synthesize IL-2 when incubated with anti-CD3 alone. Analysis of phosphorylated kinases involved in T cell activation showed that the activation of CD4+ T cells by signal 1 in SM elicited a pattern of response that required both signals 1 + 2 in humans and RM. This function of CD4+ T cells from SM may contribute to the resistance of this species to SIV-induced disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy