The motions of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus during walking were analyzed three-dimensionally using a dynamic cadaver model that recreates the stance phase of walking. Rigid marker clusters were attached to each of the three bones, and the rotations of the talus and calcaneus with respect to the tibia and the calcaneus with respect to the talus were analyzed for eight right cadaver feet. The talus rotated primarily in plantarflexion/dorsiflexion about the talocrural joint, with an average range of 18°±4.7°. The calcaneus began in inversion and internal rotation with respect to the tibia, moved into the neutral position at 28% of the stance phase and rotated primarily in plantarflexion from that point onward. Rotation of the calcaneus with respect to the talus at the subtalar joint occurred about all three axes, with approximately 5°of relative dorsiflexion and 7°of relative internal rotation. After 25% of stance, the talus and calcaneus moved together as one body into plantarflexion, providing a rigid lever as toe-off was approached.
- Foot and ankle
- Stance phase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine