Relative contribution of core and skin temperatures to thermal comfort in humans

Christian F. Bulcao, Steven M. Frank, Srinivasa N. Raja, Kha M. Tran, David S. Goldstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


1. Although both skin-surface (Tsk) and core (Tc) temperatures are known afferent inputs to the thermoregulatory system, the relative contributions of Tsk and Tc to thermal comfort is unknown. 2. Tsk and Tc temperatures were independently altered in human subjects while measuring thermal comfort on a scale of 0-10. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relative Tsk/Tc contribution ratio to thermal comfort using the ratio of regression coefficients for Tsk and Tc temperatures. 3. The proportional contribution ratio of Tsk/Tc to thermal comfort was ≃1:1. This represents a much greater Tsk/Tc contribution ratio for thermal comfort than previous studies have shown for sweating (1:20), or vasoconstriction and shivering (1:4). 4. Thermal comfort in humans is determined to a great extent by Tsk, while the physiological responses are determined primarily by changes in Tc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-150
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Thermal Biology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Feb 2000


  • Adrenergic
  • Core temperature
  • Hypothermia
  • Metabolism
  • Skin temperature
  • Thermal comfort
  • Thermoregulation
  • Vasoconstriction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Developmental Biology


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