Relationship of visceral adiposity index with new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients

Mengyi Liu, Chun Zhou, Zhuxian Zhang, Panpan He, Yuanyuan Zhang, Di Xie, Jing Nie, Min Liang, Yun Song, Chengzhang Liu, Lishun Liu, Yong Huo, Binyan Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Xiping Xu, Xianhui Qin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background & aims: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a sex-specific surrogate marker of adipose tissue distribution and function. Little is known about the longitudinal relationship between VAI and proteinuria. This study aimed to examine the prospective relationship of baseline VAI with new-onset of proteinuria in hypertensive patients without major cardiovascular diseases. Methods: A total of 10 699 hypertensive patients without proteinuria (negative urine dipstick reading) at baseline from the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) were included. Participants were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. Participants were followed every 3 months after randomization. The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The secondary outcome was progression of proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of trace or ≥1+ at the exit visit. Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.4 years, a total of 396 (3.7%) participants developed new-onset proteinuria, while 1236 (11.6%) participants met progression of proteinuria. When VAI was categorized into quartiles, compared with participants in quartile 1–3 (<2.99), a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria (OR, 1.43; 95%CI: 1.07–1.91) and progression of proteinuria (OR, 1.23; 95%CI: 1.03–1.46) was found in those in quartile 4 (≥2.99). Moreover, the positive association was consistent in participants with or without general obesity, abdominal obesity, and dyslipidemia (all P-interactions > 0.05). Conclusions: There was a positive association between VAI levels and the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)438-444
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Nutrition
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Hypertensive patients
  • Proteinuria
  • Visceral adiposity index

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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