Relationship of the availability of micronutrient powder with iron status and hemoglobin among women and children in the Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya

Philip Ndemwa, Christine L. Klotz, David Mwaniki, Kai Sun, Erastus Muniu, Pauline Andango, Joyce Owigar, Jee Hyun Rah, Klaus Kraemer, Paul Spiegel, Martin Bloem, Saskia De Pee, Richard David Semba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. Micronutrient powder is a potential strategy to improve iron status and reduce anemia in refugee populations. Objective. To evaluate the effect of the availability of home fortification with a micronutrient powder containing 2.5 mg of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) on iron status and hemoglobin in women and children in the Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya. Methods. Hemoglobin and soluble transferrin receptor were measured in 410 children 6 to 59 months of age and 458 women of childbearing age at baseline (just before micronutrient powder was distributed, along with the regular food ration) and at midline (6 months) and endline (13 months) follow-up visits. Results. At the baseline, midline, and endline visits, respectively, the mean (± SE) hemoglobin concentration in women was 121.4 ± 0.8, 120.8 ± 0.9, and 120.6 ± 1.0 g/L (p = .42); the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) was 42.6%, 41.3%, and 41.7% (p = .92); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 24.1 ± 0.5, 20.7 ± 0.7, and 20.8 ± 0.7 nmol/L (p = .0006). In children, the mean hemoglobin concentration was 105.7 ± 0.6, 109.0 ± 1.5, and 105.5 ± 0.3 g/L (p = .95), respectively; the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) was 55.5%, 52.3%, and 59.8% (p = .26); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 36.1 ± 0.7, 29.5 ± 1.9, and 28.4 ± 3.2 nmol/L (p = .02), in models that were adjusted for age using least squares means regression. Conclusions. In children and in women of childbearing age, the availability of micronutrient powder was associated with a small improvement in iron status but no significant change in hemoglobin in this refugee camp setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)286-291
Number of pages6
JournalFood and Nutrition Bulletin
Volume32
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2011

Fingerprint

Refugees
Micronutrients
Kenya
hemoglobin
refugee
dietary minerals
Powders
powders
Hemoglobins
Iron
trace element
iron
Transferrin Receptors
anemia
transferrin
childbearing
Anemia
receptors
food
regression

Keywords

  • Anemia
  • Children
  • Hemoglobin
  • Iron
  • Micronutrient powder
  • Refugees
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Food Science

Cite this

Relationship of the availability of micronutrient powder with iron status and hemoglobin among women and children in the Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya. / Ndemwa, Philip; Klotz, Christine L.; Mwaniki, David; Sun, Kai; Muniu, Erastus; Andango, Pauline; Owigar, Joyce; Rah, Jee Hyun; Kraemer, Klaus; Spiegel, Paul; Bloem, Martin; De Pee, Saskia; Semba, Richard David.

In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 32, No. 3, 09.2011, p. 286-291.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ndemwa, P, Klotz, CL, Mwaniki, D, Sun, K, Muniu, E, Andango, P, Owigar, J, Rah, JH, Kraemer, K, Spiegel, P, Bloem, M, De Pee, S & Semba, RD 2011, 'Relationship of the availability of micronutrient powder with iron status and hemoglobin among women and children in the Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya', Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 286-291.
Ndemwa, Philip ; Klotz, Christine L. ; Mwaniki, David ; Sun, Kai ; Muniu, Erastus ; Andango, Pauline ; Owigar, Joyce ; Rah, Jee Hyun ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Spiegel, Paul ; Bloem, Martin ; De Pee, Saskia ; Semba, Richard David. / Relationship of the availability of micronutrient powder with iron status and hemoglobin among women and children in the Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya. In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2011 ; Vol. 32, No. 3. pp. 286-291.
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abstract = "Background. Micronutrient powder is a potential strategy to improve iron status and reduce anemia in refugee populations. Objective. To evaluate the effect of the availability of home fortification with a micronutrient powder containing 2.5 mg of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) on iron status and hemoglobin in women and children in the Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya. Methods. Hemoglobin and soluble transferrin receptor were measured in 410 children 6 to 59 months of age and 458 women of childbearing age at baseline (just before micronutrient powder was distributed, along with the regular food ration) and at midline (6 months) and endline (13 months) follow-up visits. Results. At the baseline, midline, and endline visits, respectively, the mean (± SE) hemoglobin concentration in women was 121.4 ± 0.8, 120.8 ± 0.9, and 120.6 ± 1.0 g/L (p = .42); the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) was 42.6{\%}, 41.3{\%}, and 41.7{\%} (p = .92); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 24.1 ± 0.5, 20.7 ± 0.7, and 20.8 ± 0.7 nmol/L (p = .0006). In children, the mean hemoglobin concentration was 105.7 ± 0.6, 109.0 ± 1.5, and 105.5 ± 0.3 g/L (p = .95), respectively; the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) was 55.5{\%}, 52.3{\%}, and 59.8{\%} (p = .26); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 36.1 ± 0.7, 29.5 ± 1.9, and 28.4 ± 3.2 nmol/L (p = .02), in models that were adjusted for age using least squares means regression. Conclusions. In children and in women of childbearing age, the availability of micronutrient powder was associated with a small improvement in iron status but no significant change in hemoglobin in this refugee camp setting.",
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author = "Philip Ndemwa and Klotz, {Christine L.} and David Mwaniki and Kai Sun and Erastus Muniu and Pauline Andango and Joyce Owigar and Rah, {Jee Hyun} and Klaus Kraemer and Paul Spiegel and Martin Bloem and {De Pee}, Saskia and Semba, {Richard David}",
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AU - Ndemwa, Philip

AU - Klotz, Christine L.

AU - Mwaniki, David

AU - Sun, Kai

AU - Muniu, Erastus

AU - Andango, Pauline

AU - Owigar, Joyce

AU - Rah, Jee Hyun

AU - Kraemer, Klaus

AU - Spiegel, Paul

AU - Bloem, Martin

AU - De Pee, Saskia

AU - Semba, Richard David

PY - 2011/9

Y1 - 2011/9

N2 - Background. Micronutrient powder is a potential strategy to improve iron status and reduce anemia in refugee populations. Objective. To evaluate the effect of the availability of home fortification with a micronutrient powder containing 2.5 mg of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) on iron status and hemoglobin in women and children in the Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya. Methods. Hemoglobin and soluble transferrin receptor were measured in 410 children 6 to 59 months of age and 458 women of childbearing age at baseline (just before micronutrient powder was distributed, along with the regular food ration) and at midline (6 months) and endline (13 months) follow-up visits. Results. At the baseline, midline, and endline visits, respectively, the mean (± SE) hemoglobin concentration in women was 121.4 ± 0.8, 120.8 ± 0.9, and 120.6 ± 1.0 g/L (p = .42); the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) was 42.6%, 41.3%, and 41.7% (p = .92); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 24.1 ± 0.5, 20.7 ± 0.7, and 20.8 ± 0.7 nmol/L (p = .0006). In children, the mean hemoglobin concentration was 105.7 ± 0.6, 109.0 ± 1.5, and 105.5 ± 0.3 g/L (p = .95), respectively; the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) was 55.5%, 52.3%, and 59.8% (p = .26); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 36.1 ± 0.7, 29.5 ± 1.9, and 28.4 ± 3.2 nmol/L (p = .02), in models that were adjusted for age using least squares means regression. Conclusions. In children and in women of childbearing age, the availability of micronutrient powder was associated with a small improvement in iron status but no significant change in hemoglobin in this refugee camp setting.

AB - Background. Micronutrient powder is a potential strategy to improve iron status and reduce anemia in refugee populations. Objective. To evaluate the effect of the availability of home fortification with a micronutrient powder containing 2.5 mg of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) on iron status and hemoglobin in women and children in the Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya. Methods. Hemoglobin and soluble transferrin receptor were measured in 410 children 6 to 59 months of age and 458 women of childbearing age at baseline (just before micronutrient powder was distributed, along with the regular food ration) and at midline (6 months) and endline (13 months) follow-up visits. Results. At the baseline, midline, and endline visits, respectively, the mean (± SE) hemoglobin concentration in women was 121.4 ± 0.8, 120.8 ± 0.9, and 120.6 ± 1.0 g/L (p = .42); the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) was 42.6%, 41.3%, and 41.7% (p = .92); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 24.1 ± 0.5, 20.7 ± 0.7, and 20.8 ± 0.7 nmol/L (p = .0006). In children, the mean hemoglobin concentration was 105.7 ± 0.6, 109.0 ± 1.5, and 105.5 ± 0.3 g/L (p = .95), respectively; the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) was 55.5%, 52.3%, and 59.8% (p = .26); and the mean soluble transferrin receptor concentration was 36.1 ± 0.7, 29.5 ± 1.9, and 28.4 ± 3.2 nmol/L (p = .02), in models that were adjusted for age using least squares means regression. Conclusions. In children and in women of childbearing age, the availability of micronutrient powder was associated with a small improvement in iron status but no significant change in hemoglobin in this refugee camp setting.

KW - Anemia

KW - Children

KW - Hemoglobin

KW - Iron

KW - Micronutrient powder

KW - Refugees

KW - Women

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