Aims To examine the relationship of sex steroid hormones with osteopenia in a nationally representative sample of men in the USA. Methods Data on bone mineral density (BMD), serum sex hormones, dairy consumption, smoking status, and body composition were available for 806 adult male participants of the cross-sectional national Health and nutrition examination survey (nHAnes, 1999-2004). We estimated associations between quartiles of total and estimated free oestradiol (e2) and testosterone (T) and osteopenia (defined as 1 to 2.5 sD below the mean BMD for healthy 20- to 29-year-old men) by applying sampling weights and using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. We then estimated the association between serum hormone concentrations and osteopenia by percentage of body fat, frequency of dairy intake, cigarette smoking status, age, and race/ethnicity. Results Men in the lowest quartile of total e2 concentrations (< 21.52 pg/ml) had greater odds of osteopenia compared with men in the highest quartile (odds ratio (oR) 2.29, 95% confidence interval (cI) 1.11 to 4.73; p-trend = 0.030). Total and free T were not associated with osteopenia. Low total e2 concentrations were associated with greater odds of osteopenia among non-daily dairy consumers (p-trend = 0.046), current or former smokers (p-trend = 0.032), and younger men (p-trend = 0.031). no differences were observed by race/ethnicity and obesity. Conclusion In this nationally representative study of the UsA, men with lower total e2 were more likely to have osteopenia, which was particularly evident among younger men, men with less-than-daily dairy consumption, and current or former smokers.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Bone and Joint Research|
|State||Published - 2020|
- Sex hormones
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine