Relationship of serum copper and zinc levels to HIV-1 seropositivity and progression to AIDS

Neil M H Graham, Donna Sorensen, Nancy Odaka, Ron Brookmeyer, Daniel Wan-Yui Chan, Walter C. Willett, J. Steven Morris, Alfred J. Saah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Dietary, serum, and tissue levels of copper and zinc were determined at baseline in a cohort of homosexual men to investigate the relationship of these factors to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity and subsequent progression to AIDS. Using a nested case control design, 54 asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositives who later progressed to AIDS were compared with 54 HIV-1 seropositives who did not progress and 54 seronegatives (mean follow-up time 2.5 years). Serum levels of copper and zinc were estimated from frozen serum samples, tissue levels from stored toenail samples, and dietary intakes from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Neither dietary copper and zinc nor their levels in toenails were associated with HIV-1 seropositivity or progression to AIDS. However, serum copper levels were higher (p = 0.002) in HIV-1-seropositive progressors (mean = 115.6 μg/dl; SD = 17.1) than the seropositive nonpro-gressors (mean = 109.0 μg/dl; SD = 15.8) and the seronegatives (mean = 101.9 (μg/dl; SD = 16.7). Conversely, serum zinc levels were lower (p = 0.016) in the seropositive progressors (mean = 85.2 μg/dl; SD = 11.5) than the seropositive nonprogressors (mean = 90.7 μg/dl; SD = 12.0) and the seronegatives (mean = 92.0 μg/dl; SD = 14.7). Furthermore, in a logistic regression, higher serum copper (odds ratio per 20-μg/dl increase = 2.23; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-4.87) and lower serum zinc (odds ratio per 20-μg/dl increase = 0.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.66) predicted progression to AIDS independently of baseline CD4+ lymphocyte level, age, and calorie-adjusted dietary intakes of both nutrients. These data suggest that copper and zinc (both of which are acute phase reactants) may be useful markers of progression to AIDS and HIV-1 viral activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)976-980
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume4
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1991

Fingerprint

HIV-1
Zinc
Copper
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Serum
Nails
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Food
Acute-Phase Proteins
Logistic Models
Lymphocytes

Keywords

  • Copper
  • Human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity
  • Nutritional status
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Virology

Cite this

Graham, N. M. H., Sorensen, D., Odaka, N., Brookmeyer, R., Chan, D. W-Y., Willett, W. C., ... Saah, A. J. (1991). Relationship of serum copper and zinc levels to HIV-1 seropositivity and progression to AIDS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 4(10), 976-980.

Relationship of serum copper and zinc levels to HIV-1 seropositivity and progression to AIDS. / Graham, Neil M H; Sorensen, Donna; Odaka, Nancy; Brookmeyer, Ron; Chan, Daniel Wan-Yui; Willett, Walter C.; Steven Morris, J.; Saah, Alfred J.

In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 4, No. 10, 1991, p. 976-980.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Graham, NMH, Sorensen, D, Odaka, N, Brookmeyer, R, Chan, DW-Y, Willett, WC, Steven Morris, J & Saah, AJ 1991, 'Relationship of serum copper and zinc levels to HIV-1 seropositivity and progression to AIDS', Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 976-980.
Graham, Neil M H ; Sorensen, Donna ; Odaka, Nancy ; Brookmeyer, Ron ; Chan, Daniel Wan-Yui ; Willett, Walter C. ; Steven Morris, J. ; Saah, Alfred J. / Relationship of serum copper and zinc levels to HIV-1 seropositivity and progression to AIDS. In: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 1991 ; Vol. 4, No. 10. pp. 976-980.
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abstract = "Dietary, serum, and tissue levels of copper and zinc were determined at baseline in a cohort of homosexual men to investigate the relationship of these factors to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity and subsequent progression to AIDS. Using a nested case control design, 54 asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositives who later progressed to AIDS were compared with 54 HIV-1 seropositives who did not progress and 54 seronegatives (mean follow-up time 2.5 years). Serum levels of copper and zinc were estimated from frozen serum samples, tissue levels from stored toenail samples, and dietary intakes from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Neither dietary copper and zinc nor their levels in toenails were associated with HIV-1 seropositivity or progression to AIDS. However, serum copper levels were higher (p = 0.002) in HIV-1-seropositive progressors (mean = 115.6 μg/dl; SD = 17.1) than the seropositive nonpro-gressors (mean = 109.0 μg/dl; SD = 15.8) and the seronegatives (mean = 101.9 (μg/dl; SD = 16.7). Conversely, serum zinc levels were lower (p = 0.016) in the seropositive progressors (mean = 85.2 μg/dl; SD = 11.5) than the seropositive nonprogressors (mean = 90.7 μg/dl; SD = 12.0) and the seronegatives (mean = 92.0 μg/dl; SD = 14.7). Furthermore, in a logistic regression, higher serum copper (odds ratio per 20-μg/dl increase = 2.23; 95{\%} confidence interval = 1.02-4.87) and lower serum zinc (odds ratio per 20-μg/dl increase = 0.30; 95{\%} confidence interval = 0.14-0.66) predicted progression to AIDS independently of baseline CD4+ lymphocyte level, age, and calorie-adjusted dietary intakes of both nutrients. These data suggest that copper and zinc (both of which are acute phase reactants) may be useful markers of progression to AIDS and HIV-1 viral activity.",
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N2 - Dietary, serum, and tissue levels of copper and zinc were determined at baseline in a cohort of homosexual men to investigate the relationship of these factors to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity and subsequent progression to AIDS. Using a nested case control design, 54 asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositives who later progressed to AIDS were compared with 54 HIV-1 seropositives who did not progress and 54 seronegatives (mean follow-up time 2.5 years). Serum levels of copper and zinc were estimated from frozen serum samples, tissue levels from stored toenail samples, and dietary intakes from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Neither dietary copper and zinc nor their levels in toenails were associated with HIV-1 seropositivity or progression to AIDS. However, serum copper levels were higher (p = 0.002) in HIV-1-seropositive progressors (mean = 115.6 μg/dl; SD = 17.1) than the seropositive nonpro-gressors (mean = 109.0 μg/dl; SD = 15.8) and the seronegatives (mean = 101.9 (μg/dl; SD = 16.7). Conversely, serum zinc levels were lower (p = 0.016) in the seropositive progressors (mean = 85.2 μg/dl; SD = 11.5) than the seropositive nonprogressors (mean = 90.7 μg/dl; SD = 12.0) and the seronegatives (mean = 92.0 μg/dl; SD = 14.7). Furthermore, in a logistic regression, higher serum copper (odds ratio per 20-μg/dl increase = 2.23; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-4.87) and lower serum zinc (odds ratio per 20-μg/dl increase = 0.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.66) predicted progression to AIDS independently of baseline CD4+ lymphocyte level, age, and calorie-adjusted dietary intakes of both nutrients. These data suggest that copper and zinc (both of which are acute phase reactants) may be useful markers of progression to AIDS and HIV-1 viral activity.

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