Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy

Jennifer J. Manly, Clifford Smith, Howard A. Crystal, Jean Richardson, Elizabeth Golub, Ruth Greenblatt, Esther Robison, Eileen M. Martin, Mary Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)853-863
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Volume33
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011

Fingerprint

Executive Function
Reading
HIV
Education
Demography
Trail Making Test
Neuropsychological Tests
Population
Reference Values

Keywords

  • Ethnicity
  • HIV
  • Normative study
  • Psychomotor speed
  • Race
  • Reading level

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women : The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy. / Manly, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A.; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M.; Young, Mary.

In: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 33, No. 8, 10.2011, p. 853-863.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Manly, Jennifer J. ; Smith, Clifford ; Crystal, Howard A. ; Richardson, Jean ; Golub, Elizabeth ; Greenblatt, Ruth ; Robison, Esther ; Martin, Eileen M. ; Young, Mary. / Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women : The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy. In: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2011 ; Vol. 33, No. 8. pp. 853-863.
@article{ddd6d2eacf5e4c08abccf7c492b68935,
title = "Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy",
abstract = "Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5{\%} of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8{\%}), years of school (4.1{\%}), and WRAT-3 score (11.5{\%}) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3{\%}). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.",
keywords = "Ethnicity, HIV, Normative study, Psychomotor speed, Race, Reading level",
author = "Manly, {Jennifer J.} and Clifford Smith and Crystal, {Howard A.} and Jean Richardson and Elizabeth Golub and Ruth Greenblatt and Esther Robison and Martin, {Eileen M.} and Mary Young",
year = "2011",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1080/13803395.2010.547662",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "33",
pages = "853--863",
journal = "Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology",
issn = "1380-3395",
publisher = "Psychology Press Ltd",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women

T2 - The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy

AU - Manly, Jennifer J.

AU - Smith, Clifford

AU - Crystal, Howard A.

AU - Richardson, Jean

AU - Golub, Elizabeth

AU - Greenblatt, Ruth

AU - Robison, Esther

AU - Martin, Eileen M.

AU - Young, Mary

PY - 2011/10

Y1 - 2011/10

N2 - Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.

AB - Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.

KW - Ethnicity

KW - HIV

KW - Normative study

KW - Psychomotor speed

KW - Race

KW - Reading level

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80053466107&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=80053466107&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/13803395.2010.547662

DO - 10.1080/13803395.2010.547662

M3 - Article

C2 - 21950512

AN - SCOPUS:80053466107

VL - 33

SP - 853

EP - 863

JO - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

JF - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

SN - 1380-3395

IS - 8

ER -