Purpose: Treatment of childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a significant challenge. The goal of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL01P2 study was to develop a safe and active chemotherapy reinduction platform, which could be used to evaluate novel agents in future trials. Patients and Methods: One hundred twenty-four patients with ALL and first marrow relapse received three, 35-day blocks of reinduction chemotherapy: 69 with early relapse (ER; < 36 months from initial diagnosis) and 55 with late relapse (LR). Minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured by flow cytometry after each treatment block. Results: Second complete remission (CR2) rates at the end of block 1 in 117 assessable patients were 68% ± 6% for ER (n = 63) and 96% ± 3% for LR (n = 54; P < .0001). Five of seven patients with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) failed to achieve CR2. Among patients in CR2, MRD greater than 0.01% was detected at the end of block 1 in 75% ± 7% of ER (n = 36) versus 51% ± 8% of LR (n = 43; P = .0375) and 12-month event-free survival was 80% ± 7% versus 58% ± 7% in MRD-negative versus positive patients (P < .0005). Blocks 2 and 3 of therapy resulted in reduction of MRD burden in 40 of 56 patients who were MRD positive after block 1. Toxicity was acceptable during all three blocks with five deaths (4%) from infections. Conclusion: The AALL01P2 regimen is a tolerable and active reinduction platform, suitable for testing in combination with novel agents in B-precursor ALL. Alternative strategies are needed for T-ALL. Serial MRD measurements were feasible and prognostic of outcome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research