Inflammation mediated by the peripheral infiltration of inflammatory cells plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced secondary injury. Previous studies have indicated that regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) might reduce ICH-induced inflammation, but the precise mechanisms that contribute to ICH-induced inflammatory injury remain unclear. Our results show that the number of Tregs in the brain increases after ICH. Inducing Tregs deletion using a CD25 antibody or Foxp3 DTR-mice increased neurological deficient scores (NDS), the level of inflammatory factors, hematoma volumes, and neuronal degeneration. Meanwhile, boosting Tregs using a CD28 super-Agonist antibody reduced the inflammatory injury. Furthermore, Tregs depletion shifted microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype while boosting Tregs shifted this transition toward the M2 phenotype. In vitro, a transwell co-culture model of microglia and Tregs indicated that Tregs changed the polarization of microglia, decreased the expression of MHC-II, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased CD206 expression. IL-10 originating from Tregs mediated the microglia polarization by increasing the expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), which phosphorylates and inactivates Phosphatase and Tensin homologue (PTEN) in microglia, TGF-β did not participate in this conversion. Thus, Tregs ameliorated ICH-induced inflammatory injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype through the IL-10/GSK3β/PTEN axis.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine