Individuals on the autism spectrum are often reported as being hyper- and/or hyporeactive to sensory input. These sensory symptoms were one of the key observations that led to the development of the altered excitation-inhibition (E-I) model of autism, which posits that an increase ratio of excitatory to inhibitory signaling may explain certain phenotypical expressions of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While there has been strong support for the altered E-I model of autism, much of the evidence has come from animal models. With regard to in-vivo human studies, evidence for altered E-I balance in ASD come from studies adopting magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectral-edited MRS can be used to provide measures of the levels of GABA + (GABA + macromolecules) and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) in specific brain regions as proxy markers of inhibition and excitation respectively. In the current study, we found region-specific elevations of Glx in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) in ASD. There were no group differences of GABA+ in either the SM1 or thalamus. Higher levels of Glx were associated with more parent reported difficulties of sensory hyper- and hyporeactivity, as well as reduced feed-forward inhibition during tactile perception in children with ASD. Critically, the finding of elevated Glx provides strong empirical support for increased excitation in ASD. Our results also provide a clear link between Glx and the sensory symptoms of ASD at both behavioral and perceptual levels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Biological Psychiatry