Earlier studies reported inferior outcomes among black compared with white kidney transplant (KT) recipients.We examined whether this disparity improved in recent decades. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and Cox regressionmodels, we compared all-cause graft loss among 63,910 black and 145,482 white adults who received a first-time live donor KT (LDKT) or deceased donor KT (DDKT) in 1990-2012. Over this period, 5-year graft loss after DDKT improved from 51.4% to 30.6% for blacks and from37.3%to 25.0% for whites; 5-year graft loss after LDKT improved from37.4%to 22.2% for blacks and from 20.8% to 13.9% for whites. Among DDKT recipients in the earliest cohort, blacks were 39% more likely than whites to experience 5-year graft loss (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.32 to 1.47; P,0.001), but this disparity narrowed in the most recent cohort (aHR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.18; P=0.01). Among LDKT recipients in the earliest cohort, blacks were 53% more likely than whites to experience 5-year graft loss (aHR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.83; P,0.001), but this disparity also narrowed in the most recent cohort (aHR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.61; P,0.001). Analyses revealed no statistically significant differences in 1-year or 3-year graft loss after LDKT or DDKT in the most recent cohorts. Our findings of reduced disparities over the last 22 years driven by more markedly improved outcomes for blacks may encourage nephrologists and patients to aggressively promote access to transplantation in the black community.
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