Reduced Intensity Bone Marrow Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Pediatric Inherited Immune Deficiencies and Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes

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Abstract

Purpose: Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is the only cure for many primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDD), primary immune regulatory disorders (PIRD), and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS). Methods: We report the results of 25 patients who underwent alloBMT using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), alternative donors, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy). In an attempt to reduce regimen-related toxicities, we removed low-dose TBI from the prep and added mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for all donor types in the latter 14 patients. Donors were haploidentical related (n = 14), matched unrelated (n = 9), or mismatched unrelated (n = 2). The median age was 9 years (range 5 months–21 years). Results: With a median follow-up of 26 months (range 7 months–9 years), the 2-year overall survival is 92%. There were two deaths, one from infection, and one from complications after a second myeloablative BMT. Three patients developed secondary graft failure, one at 2 years and two at >3 years, successfully treated with CD34 cell boost in one or second BMT in two. The remaining 20 patients have full or stable mixed donor chimerism and are disease-free. The incidence of mixed chimerism is increased since removing TBI from the prep. The 6-month cumulative incidence of grade II acute GVHD is 17%, with no grade III–IV. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD is 14%, with severe of 5%. Conclusion: This alloBMT platform using alternative donors, RIC, and PTCy is associated with excellent rates of engraftment and low rates of GVHD and non-relapse mortality, and offers a curative option for patients with PIDD, PIRD, and IBMFS. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04232085.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Clinical Immunology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Blood and marrow transplantation
  • alternative donor
  • inherited bone marrow failure disorders
  • post-transplant cyclophosphamide
  • primary immune deficiency disorders
  • primary immune regulatory disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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