Recent advances in infant botulism

Christine K. Fox, Corinne A. Keet, Jonathan B. Strober

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Since infant botulism was first identified three decades ago, our understanding of botulinum toxins and the organisms that produce them has grown. A newer classification system now recognizes Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum along with Clostridium botulinum as causative agents. Recently, increasing therapeutic use of botulinum toxins has sparked substantial new research into their mechanisms of action. This research, and some case reports from infants sickened by unusual botulinum toxins suggest that disease caused by different toxin types may result in varying clinical presentations. Perhaps most significantly for pediatricians and child neurologists, a specific treatment for infant botulism has just been approved. This article reviews the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of infant botulism, including human botulism immune globulin, and discusses the various organisms and toxins that cause this disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-154
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Neurology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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