Urological malignancies, including prostate cancer, bladder cancer and kidney cancer, are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because of the high incidence, diversity in biology, and especially direct interaction with urine, urological cancers are an important resource for both scientists and clinicians for novel diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer encapsulated particles released by cells into the extracellular space. Since EVs work as a safe way to transport important biological information through the whole body, they are now recognized as an important mechanism of cell–cell communication and have opened a new window for us to gain a better understanding of cancer biology, novel diagnostics, and therapeutic options. In recent years, numerous evolutions in EV technologies and novel biological and clinical findings continue to be reported in the research field of urological cancers. This comprehensive review aims to give an update of recent advances in EV technologies and summarize the state-of-the-art knowledge of EVs related to prostate cancer, bladder cancer and kidney cancer, particularly focusing on the potential of EV as biomarkers and their biological roles in promoting cancer and metastasis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research