Background & Aims: HBV infection may reactivate in the setting of immunosuppression, although the frequency and consequences of HBV reactivation are not well known. We report 6 patients who experienced loss of serologic markers of hepatitis B immunity and reappearance of HBsAg in the serum as a result of a variety of acquired immune deficiencies. Methods: Between 2000 and 2005, six patients with reactivation of hepatitis B were seen in consultation by the Liver Diseases Branch at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health. The course and outcome of these 6 patients were reviewed. Results: All 6 patients developed reappearance of HBsAg and evidence of active liver disease after stem cell transplantation (n = 4), immunosuppressive therapy (n = 1), or change in human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral regimen (n = 1), despite having antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) or antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) without HBsAg before. All 6 patients developed chronic hepatitis B, 2 patients transmitted hepatitis B to their spouses, and 1 patient developed cirrhosis. The diagnosis of hepatitis B reactivation was frequently missed or delayed and often required interruption of the therapy for the underlying condition. None of the patients received antiviral prophylaxis against HBV reactivation. Conclusions: Serologic evidence of recovery from hepatitis B infection does not preclude its reactivation after immunosuppression. Screening for serologic evidence of hepatitis B and prophylaxis of those with positive results by using nucleoside analogue antiviral therapy should be provided to individuals in whom immunosuppressive therapy is planned.
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