Raynaud's phenomenon: Update on diagnosis and management

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review


No practical and reliable laboratory test exists for Raynaud's phenomenon. The clinician must rely on a good history and physical examination. Moreover, investigators suggest that the older terms of Raynaud's disease and Raynaud's syndrome are confusing and should be discarded. Patients should be classified as having primary or secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The most common cause of secondary Raynaud's is an underlying connective tissue disease. Cold avoidance behavior is effective and necessary therapy for all patients to learn. When drug intervention is sought, the authors recommend nifedipine (off-labeled use).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-31
Number of pages14
JournalIM - Internal Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Raynaud's phenomenon: Update on diagnosis and management'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this