The role of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy for retinoblastoma has evolved considerably over the years with the efficacy of intraarterial chemotherapy and the high incidence of secondary malignant neoplasms following radiation therapy. The use of spot scanning intensity-modulated proton therapy may reduce the risk of secondary malignancies. For pediatric nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the current standard of care is induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation therapy. For adrenocortical carcinoma, the mainstay of treatment is surgery and chemotherapy. The role of radiation therapy remains to be defined.
- adrenocorticoid tumors
- nasopharyngeal carcinoma
- radiation therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health