Rapid improvement in passive tuberculosis case detection and tuberculosis treatment outcomes after implementation of a bundled laboratory diagnostic and on-site training intervention targeting mid-level providers

TB REACH Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control is a public health priority with 3 million cases unrecognized by the public health system each year. We assessed the impact of improved TB diagnostics and on-site training on TB case detection and treatment outcomes in rural healthcare facilities. Methods. Fluorescence microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and on-site training were introduced at 10 healthcare facilities. Using quasi-experimental methods, these 10 intervention healthcare facilities were compared with 2 controls and their own performance the previous year. Results. From January to October 2012, 186 357 and 32 886 outpatients were seen in the 10 intervention and 2 control facilities, respectively. The intervention facilities had a 52.04% higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (odds ratio [OR] = 12.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.60-28.55). After adjusting for age group and gender, the proportion of smear-positive patients initiated on treatment was 37.76% higher in the intervention than in the control facilities (adjusted OR [AOR], 7.59; 95% CI, 2.19-26.33). After adjusting for the factors above, as well as human immunodeficiency virus and TB retreatment status, the proportion of TB cases who completed treatment was 29.16% higher (AOR, 4.89; 95% CI, 2.24-10.67) and the proportion of TB cases who were lost to follow-up was 66.98% lower (AOR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.09). When compared with baseline performance, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (64.70% vs 3.44%; OR, 23.95; 95% CI, 12.96-44.25), and these facilities started 56.25% more smearpositive TB cases on treatment during the project period (AOR, 15.36; 95% CI, 6.57-35.91). Conclusions. Optimizing the existing healthcare workforce through a bundled diagnostics and on-site training intervention for nonphysician healthcare workers will rapidly improve TB case detection and outcomes towards global targets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume2
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Keywords

  • Fluorescence microscopy
  • Health systems strengthening
  • Passive case finding
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Task shifting
  • Tuberculosis
  • Xpert

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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