Rapid improvement in passive tuberculosis case detection and tuberculosis treatment outcomes after implementation of a bundled laboratory diagnostic and on-site training intervention targeting mid-level providers

TB REACH Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control is a public health priority with 3 million cases unrecognized by the public health system each year. We assessed the impact of improved TB diagnostics and on-site training on TB case detection and treatment outcomes in rural healthcare facilities. Methods. Fluorescence microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and on-site training were introduced at 10 healthcare facilities. Using quasi-experimental methods, these 10 intervention healthcare facilities were compared with 2 controls and their own performance the previous year. Results. From January to October 2012, 186 357 and 32 886 outpatients were seen in the 10 intervention and 2 control facilities, respectively. The intervention facilities had a 52.04% higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (odds ratio [OR] = 12.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.60-28.55). After adjusting for age group and gender, the proportion of smear-positive patients initiated on treatment was 37.76% higher in the intervention than in the control facilities (adjusted OR [AOR], 7.59; 95% CI, 2.19-26.33). After adjusting for the factors above, as well as human immunodeficiency virus and TB retreatment status, the proportion of TB cases who completed treatment was 29.16% higher (AOR, 4.89; 95% CI, 2.24-10.67) and the proportion of TB cases who were lost to follow-up was 66.98% lower (AOR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.09). When compared with baseline performance, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (64.70% vs 3.44%; OR, 23.95; 95% CI, 12.96-44.25), and these facilities started 56.25% more smearpositive TB cases on treatment during the project period (AOR, 15.36; 95% CI, 6.57-35.91). Conclusions. Optimizing the existing healthcare workforce through a bundled diagnostics and on-site training intervention for nonphysician healthcare workers will rapidly improve TB case detection and outcomes towards global targets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofv030
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume2
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Fluorescence microscopy
  • Health systems strengthening
  • Passive case finding
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Task shifting
  • Tuberculosis
  • Xpert

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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